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Picture from this answer. With different input resistor values there are different unity-gain frequencies for each input. Picture from this slide-player. A real integrator circuit using real opamps is in fact a first order lowpass with a very low 3dB-cut-off frequency wo caused by the finite open-loop gain of the opamp.
However, as far as the integrator function is concerned, this frequency wo could be seen as a kind of "start frequency" for the begin of the integrating property. But note that real integration means "90 deg phase shift". But in practice there is a broader frequency region which is used for integrating purposes with a phase shift between app This allowable deviation from the ideal phase shift could be used for defining a corresponding frequency range and two "cut-off frequencies" which describe the practical range of integration.
But these "cut-off" frequencies have, of course, nothing to do with any 3dB-values. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Stack Overflow for Teams — Start collaborating and sharing organizational knowledge.
Create a free Team Why Teams? Learn more. Summing Integrator cut off Ask Question. Asked 1 year, 11 months ago. Modified 1 month ago. Viewed times. Then how do I calculate unity-gain frequency this circuit? Sundark12 Sundark12 55 4 4 bronze badges. Show 3 more comments. Sorted by: Reset to default. Highest score default Date modified newest first Date created oldest first.
Add a comment. Integrators ideally don't have a cut-off frequency: - Picture from this answer. In this amplifier, the reference voltage can be given to the non-inverting terminal. What is the function of the inverting amplifier? This amplifier is used to satisfy barkhausen criteria within oscillator circuits to generate sustained oscillations. What is the function of the non-inverting amplifier? Which feedback is used in the inverting amplifier? What is the voltage gain of an inverting amplifier?
What is the voltage gain of the Non-inverting Amplifier? What is the effect of negative feedback on the non-inverting amplifier? Thus, this is all about the difference between the inverting and non-inverting amplifiers. In most cases, an inverting amplifier is most commonly used due to its features like low impedance, less gain, etc. It provides signal phase shifts for signal analysis within communication circuits.
It is in the implementation of filter circuits like Chebyshev, Butterworth, etc. Difference between Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifier. Share This Post: Facebook. The output of this amplifier is in phase by the input signal.
That would require a uniform magnitude of response up to the bandwidth limitation of the system, with the signal delayed by precisely the same amount of time at all frequencies. That amount of time could be seconds, or weeks or months in the case of recorded media. In contrast, for a feedback apparatus used to control a dynamic system, the objective is to give the closed-loop system improved response as compared to the uncompensated system. The feedback generally needs to respond to system dynamics within a very small number of cycles of oscillation, and with a definite phase angle relative to the commanded control input.
For feedback of sufficient amplification, getting the phase angle wrong can lead to instability for an open-loop stable system, or failure to stabilize a system that is open-loop unstable. Digital filters may be used for both audio systems and feedback control systems, but since the objectives are different, generally the phase characteristics of the filters will be significantly different for the two applications. Electronics Sensitivity. We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe.
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Natasha Australian. Veena Indian. Priya Indian. Neerja Indian. If you like this article, there are 2 things you can do for me:. What is FEA modal analysis? Learn the basics about it. Nice post! I mean an electrical machine can have an electromechanical resonance frequency in SPEED rather than angle or displacement , at which it tends to increase the amplitude of the oscillations.
If that frequency is close to some of the torsional natural frequencies of the shaft-system, bad things happen :D. Thanks for completing and adding value Antti, as usual ;-. Hi Cyprien, Thank you for making such a detail video. My question: So in the video you ran increments of frequencies and every increment that corresponds to a certain frequency had a certain deformation showed in the results.
Or a specific frequency may have more than one type deformation under the same exact condition. Thank you Vaughan! No, no preloading here. I appreciate that you really try to explain things in detail. Really great post , How to know how may mode shapes it takes into account to do frequency response analysis and The the plot we are getting is in which direction and which node because when doing modal analysis mode shapes are different in different frequency. Good question, first by doing modal analysis, you can spot the different frequencies of the mode shapes, so you get a range of frequencies which contains your modes.
Then, when you do frequency response, you have to choose the frequency range where you will perform the analysis like I did in the video. The graph plotted in the video is for the maximum displacement. If you want to know at which node of the model it actually happened, you will have to use the post process tools in your software to spot those nodes.
Hi Cyprien I have done a modal analysis of my steel bracket and i found no. The working frequency is very less compared to the fundamental frequency so the bracket is not in the dynamic loading. Do harmonic stress are different from von-mises obtained in static analysis or is that the stress is higher only due to higher deformation that is caused by resonance?
If a component is subjected to dynamic loading in 3 directions, then for MFR, do we have to apply load simultaneously or separately for a given frequency sweep? Doing a simulation for each load can be actually more useful, because as long as you stay in the domain of linear simulation you can then add the results obtained in a linear way too so you can get the combination in post-process using a simple addition or multiplication of the result fields.
Hi Cyprien, I really appreciate your efforts for posting this video and it was great learning experience. Could you please explain the direct frequency response as well. I understand what exactly happens but replicating ina video would be great. Look forward to it. Keep up the great work. Thank you Abhishek! What is different is the equations used in the solver. Direct response takes more time because it solves mechanical equations in a coupled way.
You use direct response when you need to consider damping for example. Hi Sawant, not every resonance frequencies will enter in resonance with the frequency of your loading for a simple reason. The direction of the load for example is involved. Your model may vibrate at Hz, but not in the same direction than the input loading. In this case, it has no chance to resonate…For your second question you guessed right, if you want more precision, you need more increments!
That was a great video Cyprien! Thanks for sharing. I have developed similar benchmark analysis, natural frequency and then utilized for frequency response, which for non-resonance range are the same as linear static response. Reviewing frequency response results at resonance I have noticed that displacement value is very sensitive to damping ratio. Could you please shear your experience how to estimate damping ratio for steel structures or perhaps refer to same third party publications reachable online?
Will appreciate your response! Damping ratio depends on the material and the structural system considered…for example for standard bolt structures 0. Damping ratio depends also a lot in which kind of damping you are assuming. In structural engineering viscous damping related to velocity is normally used as it is easier to work with. However, for some cases Coulomb damping friction based is more realistic. Keep in mind that this are just gross estimations and that the real damping ratio depends on a huge number of parameters and complex mechanical interactions, making it only possible to accurately estimate its value experimentally.
You can check those books for more details: — Dynamics of Structures — Ray W. Thanks Cyprien! Could you please take a look also on my next question? Could you please let us know what is the major difference and purpose of each?
What may be observed is FR gives us plot Displacement vs Frequency, while TS plots Displacement vs Time, hence if would be hard to observe resonance in TS, therefore what is the purpose. My question is very simple… what would be the external physical real cause that makes the static load to vibrate at such a high frecuency?
It is just made to vibrate at high frecuency for Academic explanation and purposes? Hi Jose, thanks for your comment! There are some specific systems that vibrate because of the way they are conceived. Hi cyprine, Is there any way to find harmonic frequency and resonate conditions of nonlinear hyperelastic material rubber. Great video and information source for frequency response analysis!! Is the dynamic load applied as sinus function?
In my example, yes, but in practice, you can apply a dynamic load with any kind of temporal function! What I dont get is why the result on y-axis is shown as acceleration or g-loads? Per my understanding, the g-loads are the local force vectors at that point, and you can only get displacement using local stiffness matrix at that point. In this case, calling 1. Hi sir, Thanks for this video, it was very helpful.
I am performing a modal frequency response analysis on a motor. For which I got the first natural frequency at Hz from the modal analysis. Now for frequency response analysis instead of providing the range of frequencies from Hz, I provided the range for Hz. From the results I got one of the peak at Hz but there is no natural frequency around Hz.
Hi Thanks for sharing with us. How can we decided the mode shapes to be considered for the Frequency Response Analysis? Either by experience or by doing first the frequency response analysis and then observing which are the modes triggered. Nice Article, giving in depth information.
To know the answer to this question, you need to do a dynamic frequency response analysis. Apply a load which changes with time at the frequency you want to test direction should be correct too , then test each frequency and look which one gives a higher max value and you will get your response!
Thank you very much, is there also a way to get good results for the addmittance, velocity? Great Job, you teach me how to use the response function better, thank a lot! Hi Baggo, to get the velocity, what you need to do is a time response analysis I suppose you want velocity in time domain.
Excellent way of explanation! Its is very clear to me now! I will definitely recommend this to people who are interested! Thank you! How to include damping effect in this can you give insight? Depends how the software you use handles it.