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Vestrheim investing

Опубликовано в Cpp investment board logo | Октябрь 2, 2012

vestrheim investing

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One-tailed paired-test outcome is depicted. NS, nonsignificant. We next TNP-haptenized platelets, labeled them with pHrodo only fluorescent in acid environment , and opsonized them with the anti-TNP antibody. We then investigated if core fucosylation of the HPA-1a antibodies affected the disease outcome clinically. Degree of fucosylation was compared with neonatal platelet counts in FNAIT directly after delivery A , as well as with the clinical disease severity score B.

The scores are as follows: 0 indicates no symptoms; 1, mild symptoms petechiae ; 2, moderate symptoms other bleeding, including organ bleeding ; and 3, severe symptoms intracranial hemorrhages B. The glycosylation patterns of anti-HPA-1a IgG1 antibodies were compared with those of total IgG1 antibodies within the same individual and to anti-platelet antibodies formed after platelet transfusion in RT patients with anti-HLA antibodies.

Antigen-specific antibodies were affinity purified using surface-immobilized antigen, and the tryptic Fc glycopeptides of the pathogenic IgG1 as well as of total IgG1 were analyzed by mass spectrometry. We further observed normal high levels of core fucosylation for anti-HLA class I antibodies RT patients , of which 12 of the 13 patients were women who we cannot exclude to have been immunized already during a previous pregnancy. Together with the data on normal fucosylation of anti-HLA antibodies from the RT patients, this further lends support to the hypothesis that other factors besides pregnancy are involved in this type of IgG fucosylation.

Among the 48 FNAIT samples analyzed, 7 samples were taken in a period ranging from 6 weeks to 7 years after delivery; whereas all the other samples were taken within 2 days after delivery. Surprisingly, the lower levels of IgG fucose specific values of relative abundance minus total values seemed to persist for a prolonged period after delivery, indicating that the type of IgG glycosylation acquired during the onset of the immune response is a subject of imprinting or attributable to long-lived plasma cells.

The increased levels of specific galactosylation of antigen-specific IgG1 compared with total IgG1 in the cohorts with anti-HPA-1a antibodies developed after pregnancies and anti-HLA antibodies in platelet-transfused patients appear to be, to our knowledge, the first disease settings in which this phenomenon is described. A high degree of galactosylation has been found to negatively affect IgG half-life in mice, 40 suggesting that galactosylation may also influence the transport of IgG from mother to child because both half-life and transport of IgG are mainly mediated by the neonatal Fc receptor FcRn.

Various B-cell stimuli have been shown to modulate Fc glycosylation. Both the Toll-like receptor 9 ligand cytosine guanine dinucleotide oligodeoxynucleotide and interleukin 21 have been shown to increase Fc galactosylation and reduce bisecting GlcNAc levels. In contrast, all- trans retinoic acid decreases galactosylation and sialylation levels.

For HIV-specific antibodies, which also displayed decreased fucosylation, FUT8 expression was found to be decreased in controllers and treated progressors compared with untreated progressors, whereas the expression of the fucosidase FUCA2 was found to be increased in controllers and untreated subjects. Also, the degree of anti-HPA-1a fucosylation demonstrated a low but statistically significant positive correlation with the level of bisecting GlcNAc, as well as a negative correlation with the level of galactosylation.

This indicates that the glycosylation of the IgG antibodies is dictated by the specific immune reaction, forming a differential spectrum of Fc-glycosylated antibodies that depends on the nature of the immune response. In addition, we found the degree of FNAIT anti-HPA-1a Fc fucosylation to correlate significantly with the degree of platelet phagocytosis, with sera containing less core fucosylation in their anti-HPA-1a antibodies giving rise to stronger phagocytosis.

In line with this, we also found the degree of anti-HPA-1a Fc fucosylation to correlate positively with neonatal platelet counts directly after delivery. This suggests that fucosylation of anti-platelet antibodies plays an important role. Although our FNAIT cohort is limited by the fact that most asymptomatic anti-HPA-1a patients remain undiagnosed, our study did include a few patients who were asymptomatic directly after delivery.

All of these asymptomatic patients demonstrated high levels of anti-HPA-1a Fc fucosylation. Fucosylation status of anti-platelet antibodies may therefore prove to be a useful diagnostic marker to evaluate disease severity. However, and perhaps somewhat remarkably, the function of the anti-HLA antibodies from RT patients, all with normal fucosylation, seems less affected by their fucosylation because they apparently are fully capable of causing potent platelet destruction.

In conclusion, the Fc glycosylation of anti-platelet antibodies in FNAIT and RT is associated with a slightly increased level of Fc galactosylation that predisposes the IgG for further modification by the addition of sialic acid. In addition, the extent of reduced Fc fucosylation of anti-HPA-1a correlated significantly with more severe bleeding tendency. In contrast, we do not see this decreased fucosylation phenomenon for anti-HLA antibodies in RT, strongly suggesting that IgG glycosylation, and therefore its functional potential, is under tight regulation in humans.

The online version of this article contains a data supplement. There is an Inside Blood commentary on this article in this issue. The publication costs of this article were defrayed in part by page charge payment. Contribution: R. Conflict-of-interest disclosure: B. The remaining authors declare no competing financial interests.

Prepublished online Nov Koeleman , 5 Remco Visser , 1 Helga K. Carolien A. Helga K. Terje E. Ellen van der Schoot. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author.

Received Sep 18; Accepted Nov 9. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Introduction Fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia FNAIT is a potentially life-threatening disease where the fetal platelets are targeted by maternal anti-platelet immunoglobulin G IgG alloantibodies crossing the placenta.

Purification of anti-platelet antibodies from sera HPA-1a—specific alloantibodies were purified in a similar way as described previously, 32 but now instead of eluting from platelets, we increased the specificity by eluting the antibodies with formic acid from antigen-coated plates PAK12; Immucor GTI Diagnostics, Waukesha, WI.

Mass spectrometric IgG-Fc glycosylation analysis Nano liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry was performed as described in the supplemental Methods. Cell isolations, TNP haptenization, labeling, and antibody opsonization Human platelets, PMNs, and monocytes were isolated freshly, and platelets were haptenized with TNP, as described in the supplemental Methods. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Fc glycosylation of anti-HLA antibodies To investigate whether the skewing of glycosylation seen in anti-platelet responses during pregnancies was attributable to a general anti-platelet response or to an anti-HPA-1a—related response in pregnancy, we also investigated the IgG responses formed against platelets in sera of 13 RT patients lack of adequate posttransfusion platelet-count increments, in which anti-HLA antibodies are frequently implicated.

Figure 4. Lack of IgG core fucosylation increases platelet phagocytosis We next TNP-haptenized platelets, labeled them with pHrodo only fluorescent in acid environment , and opsonized them with the anti-TNP antibody. Figure 5.

A lowered anti-HPA-1a Fc fucosylation correlates with decreased neonatal platelet counts and increased disease severity in FNAIT patients We then investigated if core fucosylation of the HPA-1a antibodies affected the disease outcome clinically. Figure 6. Footnotes The online version of this article contains a data supplement. Authorship Contribution: R.

References 1. Platelets and the immune continuum. Nat Rev Immunol. Nimmerjahn F, Ravetch JV. Anti-inflammatory actions of intravenous immunoglobulin. Annu Rev Immunol. J Biol Chem. The 3. Unique carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions are required for high affinity binding between FcgammaRIII and antibodies lacking core fucose.

Association of rheumatoid arthritis and primary osteoarthritis with changes in the glycosylation pattern of total serum IgG. The impact of glycosylation on the biological function and structure of human immunoglobulins. Ovarian cancer is associated with changes in glycosylation in both acute-phase proteins and IgG. Changes in IgG glycoform levels are associated with remission of arthritis during pregnancy. J Autoimmun. Immunoglobulin G galactosylation and sialylation are associated with pregnancy-induced improvement of rheumatoid arthritis and the postpartum flare: results from a large prospective cohort study.

Arthritis Res Ther. High throughput isolation and glycosylation analysis of IgG-variability and heritability of the IgG glycome in three isolated human populations. Mol Cell Proteomics. J Proteomics. Nat Med. Anti-inflammatory activity of immunoglobulin G resulting from Fc sialylation. Intravenous gammaglobulin suppresses inflammation through a novel T H 2 pathway. General mechanism for modulating immunoglobulin effector function.

Exp Hematol. Structural basis for improved efficacy of therapeutic antibodies on defucosylation of their Fc glycans. The randomised dates model did not converge. The presence and absence of virulence genes was determined as part of the Nullabor package using the virulence factor database VFDB [19] , [31]. Scoary with no pairwise comparisons was used to determine which genes were associated with CC compared to CC [33]. All information regarding the isolates used in this study was anonymised before analysis.

Appropriate approvals for the use of isolates were obtained from each institution contributing unpublished genomes. No tissue material or other biological material was obtained from humans. Illumina sequence data were obtained from THL for the 11 CC Finnish outbreak isolates identified between May-November [1] and a further 14 CC isolates from surveillance between and Screening of the international dataset of over 40, pneumococcal genomes for GPSC identified 41 relevant genomes: 14 had previously been published as part of the GPS project [7] , a further 24 had since been sequenced as part of ongoing GPS work unpublished , two isolates were identified in the Mae La carriage study [34] and one was identified in an IPD study in Iceland unpublished.

Together, a total of genomes were available for the analysis; their complete metadata are included in the supplementary tables. The genomes were isolated in 12 different countries representing Europe, Asia, Oceania and Africa. These two major clades were estimated to have diverged around the year [—] by our phylogenetic dating. A single known pneumococcal resistance determinant was detected in one isolate from Russia, the tet gene conferring tetracycline resistance.

The maximum pairwise SNP distance for the 30 outbreak isolates from the three countries was Supplementary. In the phylogenetic temporal analysis we estimated that the ST isolates within CC had shared a common ancestor in [—], whilst the common ancestor of all the outbreak isolates was in [—]. Phylogeny of CC and outbreak clade, Fig.

Green triangle denotes subtree that is expanded in Fig. The maximum SNP distance for the Norwegian outbreak isolates was Of the 17 Norwegian outbreak strains, 13 isolates were virtually indistinguishable, all ST with pairwise SNP distances of 0—1 and no recombination detected. Two of the remaining 4 outbreak isolates were also ST but phylogenetically distinct with minimum pairwise SNP distances from the main cluster of Norwegian outbreak isolates of 10 and 70 SNPs.

The final two Norwegian outbreak isolates were ST, with no detected recombination between them and a pairwise SNP distance of 1 from each other with a minimum. The minimum SNP distance between these ST isolates and any other Norwegian outbreak isolate was 69 and there was additional evidence of recombination. Note that the two ST isolates and the two ST isolates that did not belong to the cluster of 13 were isolated during the first two months of the outbreak. The closest isolate to these outbreak strains was a single Norwegian outbreak isolate from with a pairwise SNP distance of 7 whereas the closest PHE isolate from routine WGS surveillance in England was isolated in and had a 48 pairwise SNP distance.

The maximum SNP distance for the 11 Finnish outbreak isolates was 89, these were found in five distinct groupings when using a pairwise SNP threshold of In three of these five groupings Finnish surveillance isolates were also found, and three Finnish surveillance isolates one singleton and one pair had a SNP distance of only one to a Finnish outbreak isolate. Six Finnish isolates two from the outbreak and four from surveillance were closely related to the cluster of 13 Norwegian outbreak isolates 0—2 SNPs.

Outbreak isolates from Northern Ireland were not part of this cluster. Three of the four from Finnish surveillance were diagnosed in the same hospital district as the shipyard and in the same time period as the outbreak summer-autumn though no link to the shipyard was identified.

There was also no evidence of recombination differences between these isolates and limited differences in accessory gene content, where hypothetical genes and transposases accounted for the vast majority of missing genes in the Finnish isolates compared to the Norwegian isolates. The 19 closely related isolates from Norway and Finland were estimated to share a common ancestor in [—] from the phylogenetic temporal analysis Fig. Of the accessory genes 99 were significantly associated with CC, 66 of which were hypothetic proteins.

A further genes were negatively associated with CC Thirty-three different virulence factors were detected in the collection with 20—31 per isolate mode The remaining CC isolates had a lytC allele with Seventeen of the thirty outbreak isolates analysed had a reduced percentage identity of This allele was shared by 22 of 25 closely related isolates in a subcluster that contained the shared outbreak cluster.

The international collection does not represent a balanced sampling of different geographical areas. In a recent report on the STs of serotype 4 IPD in adults in the United States, ST was not observed, suggesting it does not circulate generally in developed nations [35]. The ST isolates represented a diverse group of isolates with a max SNP distance of and the common ancestor was estimated to exist around The isolates associated with the Norwegian and Finnish outbreak had maximum SNP distances of 96 and 89, respectively, implying that the diversity in these outbreaks and total ST diversity is largely overlapping.

This level of genetic diversity cannot be explained solely by recent transmission during the outbreak time periods, as they were estimated to share a common ancestor around the year The mutation rate for pneumococci has previously been reported in the region of 1—1. The overlap between outbreak isolates from Norway and two Finnish outbreak isolates may be explained by international transmission between shipyards via the internationally mobile workforce.

The observation of a further 4 closely related IPD cases in Finland could suggest either that these were outbreak cases that were not initially identified as linked to the outbreak, as there was limited ability to identify friends and family members, or transmission in the wider community. We present evidence firstly of transmission of closely related ST isolates within an outbreak and potentially between international shipyards, and secondly multiple genetically distinct instances of ST causing disease in the outbreaks.

The later scenario suggests working conditions are such that there are multiple opportunities for independent IPD cases to arise, supported by the observation of serotype 4 ST and other serotypes in the initial reports [1] , [3] , and that ST must be circulating in the workforce or wider community. Those independent colonisation events and direct disease transmission events can be facilitated by crowded living conditions. The shipyard working population has been shown previously to be at increased risk for severe pneumococcal disease [8] , [9] , [10] , [11] , [12] , [13] , [14].

Furthermore, serotype 4 IPD in adults has previously been reported to be positively associated with smoking [38] and in the Finnish outbreak, the majority of cases were smokers, mostly without underlying conditions [1]. Underlying medical conditions were not common in the Norwegian outbreak, several were smokers and as such smoking was no longer permitted in the shipyard. Serotype 4 has been implicated in recent reports on people experiencing homelessness in the USA with parallels to our finding evidence of both transmission and considerable diversity in clusters of cases [35] , [39].

This highlights the propensity of serotype 4 to be associated with outbreaks in at risk adults regardless of clone type, their data suggests an adult reservoir for serotype 4 though the US dataset and the dataset used here suggest carriage is rarely detected. This may be due to short carriage duration which in turn could explain low antimicrobial resistance levels which are typical of serotype 4.

Insufficient data exists to determine if ST is more invasive than other clones expressing serotype 4 as has been shown for other ST-serotype combinations [7]. A recent study on another European pneumococcal shipyard outbreak also concluded that progression from carriage to invasive disease was facilitated by the conditions associated with shipyards [40]. This study also emphasises the value of the large open database of international genome sequences for determining genomic relationships between the strains and the phylogeographical and temporal context for outbreaks.

We initially hypothesised that a strain of ST shared between multiple shipyard outbreaks could represent adaptation to this niche. Whilst outbreak strain diversity was similar to ST overall it does not rule out that ST has an advantage when airways are exposed to harsh conditions. Though we stress that serotype 4 maybe the more defining feature of outbreaks in at risk adults we determined the virulence factors and defining gene content associated with CC, and highlighted differences in gene context to CC Genomic collections can provide an opportunity to identify whether there have been any specific adaptations which could play a role in the outbreaks.

However, further data including sampling of carriage during outbreaks and of the general at risk population shipyard workers, adults , which is sparse, would be informative to allow for robust sampling and well-designed analyses to capture any causative genetic variation. The results of this study stress the need for better implementation of preventive measures more broadly in this susceptible working population, as cases were not limited to welders, including pneumococcal vaccination, more stringent and possibly wider use of personal protective equipment during work in confined areas where welding takes place, improved living conditions, promotion of hygiene measures, and stressing the compounding dangers of smoking.

Srifuengfung: Resources. Ford: Resources. Lehmann: Resources. Egorova: Resources. Voropaeva: Resources. G received a PhD stipend from Pfizer — All grants and honoraria are paid into accounts within the respective NHS Trusts or Universities, or to independent charities. A cost recovery charge is made for these reports. F and C. No personal remuneration is received. T reports grants from GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer to the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare for unrelated research projects in which she is a co-investigator.

All remaining authors report no conflicts of interest. We would like to acknowledge the Global Pneumococcal Sequencing project GPS and other pneumococcal sequencing projects performed at the Wellcome Sanger Institute whose genomes were screened to identify isolates that could provide context for this analysis, and the Wellcome Sanger Institute Pathogen Informatics Team. We would like to acknowledge Anni Vainio, Milla Hietikko, Elina Yamazaki and Riitta Pulkkinen for laboratory and sequencing work of the Finnish isolates and the outbreak investigation team for their work to control the outbreak.

The findings and conclusions in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sequencing of outbreak and contemporary IPD surveillance isolates were funded internally in the respective public health institutes.

Carter , ad Jennifer E. Hawkins , bw Waleria Hryniewicz , ar Kristina G. Lo , by Theresa J. Ochoa , ba Shabir A. Ravikumar , bi Ewa Sadowy , bj Samir K. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. Sponsored Document from. Gladstone , a, b L. Siira , c O. Brynildsrud , d D. Vestrheim , d P. Turner , e, f S. Clarke , g, h, i, j, k S. Srifuengfung , l R. Ford , m D. Lehmann , n E. Egorova , o E. Voropaeva , o G. Haraldsson , p K. Kristinsson , p L. McGee , q R. Breiman , r, s S. Bentley , b C.

Sheppard , t N. Corander , a, b M Toropainen , c A. Egorova o G. Voropaeva o G. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Supplementary data 1. Abstract Background Pneumococcal disease outbreaks of vaccine preventable serotype 4 sequence type ST in shipyards have been reported in several countries.

Results Outbreak isolates were relatively diverse, with up to SNPs single nucleotide polymorphisms and a common ancestor estimated around the year Conclusion The total diversity of ST within the outbreaks could not be explained by recent transmission alone, suggesting that harsh environmental and associated living conditions reported in the shipyards may facilitate invasion of colonising pneumococci.

Introduction Outbreaks of invasive pneumococcal disease IPD in shipyard workers have been observed in multiple European countries in recent years; Northern Ireland , Norway , Finland and France [1] , [2] , [3] , [4]. Table 1 IPD incidence per , in the working adult population. Country Serotype 4 All serotypes Age group Finland 0. Open in a separate window. Methods 2. Bioinformatics Assembly and annotation was performed using Shovill and Prokka as part of the Nullabor package [18] , [19].

Consent statement All information regarding the isolates used in this study was anonymised before analysis. Results 3. Finnish outbreak isolates The maximum SNP distance for the 11 Finnish outbreak isolates was 89, these were found in five distinct groupings when using a pairwise SNP threshold of Shared outbreak cluster Six Finnish isolates two from the outbreak and four from surveillance were closely related to the cluster of 13 Norwegian outbreak isolates 0—2 SNPs.

CRediT authorship contribution statement R. The Global Pneumococcal Sequencing Consortium. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the Global Pneumococcal Sequencing project GPS and other pneumococcal sequencing projects performed at the Wellcome Sanger Institute whose genomes were screened to identify isolates that could provide context for this analysis, and the Wellcome Sanger Institute Pathogen Informatics Team.

Funding statement Sequencing of outbreak and contemporary IPD surveillance isolates were funded internally in the respective public health institutes. Bernard W. Philip E. Jennifer E. Nicholas J. Dean B. Paulina A. Kristina G. Jeremy Keenan ax Francis I. Keith P. Pierra Y. Stephanie W. Theresa J. Shabir A. Kedibone M. Susan A.

Vestrheim investing risk and rewards of investing

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The stock market is no place for money that you might need within the next five years, at a minimum. Now let's talk about what to do with your investable money -- that is, the money you won't likely need within the next five years.

This is a concept known as asset allocation , and a few factors come into play here. Your age is a major consideration, and so are your particular risk tolerance and investment objectives. Let's start with your age. The general idea is that as you get older, stocks gradually become a less desirable place to keep your money. If you're young, you have decades ahead of you to ride out any ups and downs in the market, but this isn't the case if you're retired and reliant on your investment income.

Here's a quick rule of thumb that can help you establish a ballpark asset allocation. Take your age and subtract it from This is the approximate percentage of your investable money that should be in stocks this includes mutual funds and ETFs that are stock based. The remainder should be in fixed-income investments like bonds or high-yield CDs. You can then adjust this ratio up or down depending on your particular risk tolerance. For example, let's say that you are 40 years old. If you're more of a risk taker or are planning to work past a typical retirement age, you may want to shift this ratio in favor of stocks.

On the other hand, if you don't like big fluctuations in your portfolio, you might want to modify it in the other direction. All of the advice about investing in stocks for beginners doesn't do you much good if you don't have any way to actually buy stocks. To do this, you'll need a specialized type of account called a brokerage account.

And opening a brokerage account is typically a quick and painless process that takes only minutes. You can easily fund your brokerage account via EFT transfer, by mailing a check, or by wiring money. Opening a brokerage account is generally easy, but you should consider a few things before choosing a particular broker:. First, determine the type of brokerage account you need.

For most people who are just trying to learn stock market investing, this means choosing between a standard brokerage account and an individual retirement account IRA. Both account types will allow you to buy stocks, mutual funds, and ETFs.

The main considerations here are why you're investing in stocks and how easily you want to be able to access your money. If you want easy access to your money, are just investing for a rainy day, or want to invest more than the annual IRA contribution limit , you'll probably want a standard brokerage account.

On the other hand, if your goal is to build up a retirement nest egg, an IRA is a great way to go. IRAs are very tax-advantaged places to buy stocks, but the downside is that it can be difficult to withdraw your money until you get older. The majority of online stock brokers have eliminated trading commissions, so most but not all are on a level playing field as far as costs are concerned.

However, there are several other big differences. For example, some brokers offer customers a variety of educational tools, access to investment research, and other features that are especially useful for newer investors. Others offer the ability to trade on foreign stock exchanges. And some have physical branch networks, which can be nice if you want face-to-face investment guidance.

There's also the user-friendliness and functionality of the broker's trading platform. I've used quite a few of them and can tell you firsthand that some are far more "clunky" than others. Many will let you try a demo version before committing any money, and if that's the case, I highly recommend it.

Browse top stock brokerages. Now that we've answered the question of how you buy stock, if you're looking for some great beginner-friendly investment ideas , here are five great stocks to help get you started. Of course, in just a few paragraphs we can't go over everything you should consider when selecting and analyzing stocks, but here are the important concepts to master before you get started:.

It's a good idea to learn the concept of diversification , meaning that you should have a variety of different types of companies in your portfolio. However, I'd caution against too much diversification. Stick with businesses you understand -- and if it turns out that you're good at or comfortable with evaluating a particular type of stock, there's nothing wrong with one industry making up a relatively large segment of your portfolio.

Buying flashy high-growth stocks may seem like a great way to build wealth and it certainly can be , but I'd caution you to hold off on these until you're a little more experienced. It's wiser to create a "base" to your portfolio with rock-solid, established businesses. If you want to invest in individual stocks, you should familiarize yourself with some of the basic ways to evaluate them.

Our guide to value investing is a great place to start. There we help you find stocks trading for attractive valuations. And if you want to add some exciting long-term-growth prospects to your portfolio, our guide to growth investing is a great place to begin. Related: When to Sell Stocks. Here's one of the biggest secrets of investing, courtesy of the Oracle of Omaha himself, Warren Buffett.

You do not need to do extraordinary things to get extraordinary results. Note: Warren Buffett is not only the most successful long-term investor of all time, but also one of the best sources of wisdom for your investment strategy.

The most surefire way to make money in the stock market is to buy shares of great businesses at reasonable prices and hold on to the shares for as long as the businesses remain great or until you need the money. If you do this, you'll experience some volatility along the way, but over time you'll produce excellent investment returns.

Here's your step-by-step guide for opening a brokerage account :. It is generally considered the best indicator of how U. Why do we invest this way? Learn More. Calculated by average return of all stock recommendations since inception of the Stock Advisor service in February of Discounted offers are only available to new members.

Much like regular dividend-paying stocks, REITs are appropriate for investors who want regular income, though they offer the opportunity for appreciation, too. REITs invest in a variety of properties such as malls about a quarter of all REITs specialize in these , healthcare facilities, mortgages, and office buildings.

In comparison to other types of real estate investments, REITs have the benefit of being highly liquid. Real estate investment groups REIGs are sort of like small mutual funds for rental properties. A company will buy or build a set of buildings, often apartments, then allow investors to buy them through the company, thus joining the group. A single investor can own one or multiple units of self-contained living space.

But the company that operates the investment group manages all the units and takes care of maintenance, advertising, and finding tenants. In exchange for this management, the company takes a percentage of the monthly rent. There are several versions of investment groups.

This means you will receive enough to pay the mortgage even if your unit is empty. The quality of an investment group depends entirely on the company that offers it. In theory, it is a safe way to get into real estate investment, but groups may charge the kind of high fees that haunt the mutual fund industry.

As with all investments, research is key. A real estate limited partnership RELP is similar to a real estate investment group. It is an entity formed to buy and hold a portfolio of properties, or sometimes just one property. However, RELPs exist for a finite number of years. An experienced property manager or real estate development firm serves as the general partner.

Outside investors are then sought to provide financing for the real estate project, in exchange for a share of ownership as limited partners. Real estate mutual funds invest primarily in REITs and real estate operating companies. They provide the ability to gain diversified exposure to real estate with a relatively small amount of capital. Depending on their strategy and diversification goals, they provide investors with much broader asset selection than can be achieved through buying individual REITs.

Like REITs, these funds are pretty liquid. Another significant advantage to retail investors is the analytical and research information provided by the fund. More speculative investors can invest in a family of real estate mutual funds, tactically overweighting certain property types or regions to maximize return. In general, the real estate market is one of low volatility , especially compared to equities and bonds. Real estate is also attractive when compared with more traditional sources of income return.

This asset class typically trades at a yield premium to U. Treasuries and is especially attractive in an environment where Treasury rates are low. Another benefit of investing in real estate is its diversification potential.

Real estate has a low and, in some cases, negative, correlation with other major asset classes—meaning, when stocks are down, real estate is often up. This means the addition of real estate to a portfolio can lower its volatility and provide a higher return per unit of risk. Because it is backed by brick and mortar, direct real estate also carries less principal-agent conflict , or the extent to which the interest of the investor is dependent on the integrity and competence of managers and debtors.

Even the more indirect forms of investment carry some protection. The inflation-hedging capability of real estate stems from the positive relationship between gross domestic product GDP growth and demand for real estate. As economies expand, the demand for real estate drives rents higher, and this, in turn, translates into higher capital values.

Therefore, real estate tends to maintain the purchasing power of capital by passing some of the inflationary pressure onto tenants and by incorporating some of the inflationary pressure, in the form of capital appreciation. With the exception of REITs, investing in real estate gives an investor one tool that is not available to stock market investors: leverage.

Leverage means to use debt to finance a larger purchase than you have the available cash for. If you want to buy a stock, you have to pay the full value of the stock at the time you place the buy order—unless you are buying on margin. And even then, the percentage you can borrow is still much less than with real estate, thanks to that magical financing method, the mortgage.

This means that you can control the whole property and the equity it holds by only paying a fraction of the total value. Of course, the size of your mortgage affects the amount of ownership you actually have in the property, but you control it the minute the papers are signed.

This is what emboldens real estate flippers and landlords alike. They can take out a second mortgage on their homes and put down payments on two or three other properties. Whether they rent these out so that tenants pay the mortgage, or they wait for an opportunity to sell for a profit, they control these assets, despite having only paid for a small part of the total value. Home prices tend to rise along with inflation. This is because homebuilders' costs rise with inflation, which must be passed on to buyers of new homes.

Existing homes, too, rise with inflation though. If you hold a fixed-rate mortgage, as inflation rises, your fixed monthly payments become effectively more affordable. Moreover, if you are a landlord, you can increase the rent to keep up with inflation. Because real estate is such a large and costly asset, loans must often be taken out to finance their purchase.

Because of this, interest rate hikes make mortgage payments more costly for new loans or on existing adjustable-rate loans like ARMs. This can discourage buyers, who must factor in the cost to carry the property month-to-month. Real estate can be a sound investment, and one that has the potential to provide a steady income and build wealth. Still, one drawback of investing in real estate is illiquidity : the relative difficulty in converting an asset into cash and cash into an asset.

Unlike a stock or bond transaction, which can be completed in seconds, a real estate transaction can take months to close. Even with the help of a broker , simply finding the right counterparty can be a few weeks of work. Of course, REITs and real estate mutual funds offer better liquidity and market pricing.

But they come at the price of higher volatility and lower diversification benefits, as they have a much higher correlation to the overall stock market than direct real estate investments. As with any investment, keep your expectations realistic, and be sure to do your homework and research before making any decisions. Mortgage lending discrimination is illegal. If you think you've been discriminated against based on race, religion, sex, marital status, use of public assistance, national origin, disability, or age, there are steps you can take.

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Federal Trade Commission. Securities and Exchange Commission. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. Real Estate Investing. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses.

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Msft forecast Intranasal administration of antibody-bound respiratory syncytial virus particles efficiently primes virus-specific immune responses in mice. A high degree of galactosylation has been found to negatively affect IgG half-life in mice, 40 suggesting that galactosylation may also influence the transport of IgG from mother to child because both half-life and transport of IgG are mainly mediated by the neonatal Fc receptor FcRn. Travel Med Infect Dis. Jeremy Keenan ax Francis I. Furthermore, we compare the glycosylation of IgG formed during immune responses against platelets in pregnancy with that of IgG formed against HLA after platelet transfusion or pregnancies.
Black vest with blue suit R News. Assembly and annotation was performed using Shovill and Prokka as part of the Nullabor package [18][19]. Interstitial Lung Disease in Welders. Degree of fucosylation was compared with neonatal platelet counts in FNAIT directly after delivery Aas well as with the clinical disease severity score B. The international collection does not represent a balanced sampling of different geographical areas. Purification of anti-platelet antibodies from sera HPA-1a—specific alloantibodies were purified in a similar way as described previously, 32 but now how to make money for a beginner in forex of eluting from platelets, we increased the specificity by eluting the antibodies with formic acid from antigen-coated plates PAK12; Immucor GTI Diagnostics, Waukesha, WI. Only four years after PCV7 introduction in England and Wales the incidence rate ratio of serotype 4 was 0.
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Take your age and subtract it from This is the approximate percentage of your investable money that should be in stocks this includes mutual funds and ETFs that are stock based. The remainder should be in fixed-income investments like bonds or high-yield CDs. You can then adjust this ratio up or down depending on your particular risk tolerance.

For example, let's say that you are 40 years old. If you're more of a risk taker or are planning to work past a typical retirement age, you may want to shift this ratio in favor of stocks. On the other hand, if you don't like big fluctuations in your portfolio, you might want to modify it in the other direction.

All of the advice about investing in stocks for beginners doesn't do you much good if you don't have any way to actually buy stocks. To do this, you'll need a specialized type of account called a brokerage account. And opening a brokerage account is typically a quick and painless process that takes only minutes. You can easily fund your brokerage account via EFT transfer, by mailing a check, or by wiring money.

Opening a brokerage account is generally easy, but you should consider a few things before choosing a particular broker:. First, determine the type of brokerage account you need. For most people who are just trying to learn stock market investing, this means choosing between a standard brokerage account and an individual retirement account IRA. Both account types will allow you to buy stocks, mutual funds, and ETFs. The main considerations here are why you're investing in stocks and how easily you want to be able to access your money.

If you want easy access to your money, are just investing for a rainy day, or want to invest more than the annual IRA contribution limit , you'll probably want a standard brokerage account. On the other hand, if your goal is to build up a retirement nest egg, an IRA is a great way to go. IRAs are very tax-advantaged places to buy stocks, but the downside is that it can be difficult to withdraw your money until you get older.

The majority of online stock brokers have eliminated trading commissions, so most but not all are on a level playing field as far as costs are concerned. However, there are several other big differences. For example, some brokers offer customers a variety of educational tools, access to investment research, and other features that are especially useful for newer investors.

Others offer the ability to trade on foreign stock exchanges. And some have physical branch networks, which can be nice if you want face-to-face investment guidance. There's also the user-friendliness and functionality of the broker's trading platform.

I've used quite a few of them and can tell you firsthand that some are far more "clunky" than others. Many will let you try a demo version before committing any money, and if that's the case, I highly recommend it. Browse top stock brokerages. Now that we've answered the question of how you buy stock, if you're looking for some great beginner-friendly investment ideas , here are five great stocks to help get you started. Of course, in just a few paragraphs we can't go over everything you should consider when selecting and analyzing stocks, but here are the important concepts to master before you get started:.

It's a good idea to learn the concept of diversification , meaning that you should have a variety of different types of companies in your portfolio. However, I'd caution against too much diversification. Stick with businesses you understand -- and if it turns out that you're good at or comfortable with evaluating a particular type of stock, there's nothing wrong with one industry making up a relatively large segment of your portfolio. Buying flashy high-growth stocks may seem like a great way to build wealth and it certainly can be , but I'd caution you to hold off on these until you're a little more experienced.

It's wiser to create a "base" to your portfolio with rock-solid, established businesses. If you want to invest in individual stocks, you should familiarize yourself with some of the basic ways to evaluate them. Our guide to value investing is a great place to start. There we help you find stocks trading for attractive valuations.

And if you want to add some exciting long-term-growth prospects to your portfolio, our guide to growth investing is a great place to begin. Related: When to Sell Stocks. Here's one of the biggest secrets of investing, courtesy of the Oracle of Omaha himself, Warren Buffett. You do not need to do extraordinary things to get extraordinary results.

Note: Warren Buffett is not only the most successful long-term investor of all time, but also one of the best sources of wisdom for your investment strategy. The most surefire way to make money in the stock market is to buy shares of great businesses at reasonable prices and hold on to the shares for as long as the businesses remain great or until you need the money. If you do this, you'll experience some volatility along the way, but over time you'll produce excellent investment returns.

Here's your step-by-step guide for opening a brokerage account :. It is generally considered the best indicator of how U. Why do we invest this way? Learn More. Calculated by average return of all stock recommendations since inception of the Stock Advisor service in February of Discounted offers are only available to new members. Calculated by Time-Weighted Return since Volatility profiles based on trailing-three-year calculations of the standard deviation of service investment returns.

Invest better with The Motley Fool. Get stock recommendations, portfolio guidance, and more from The Motley Fool's premium services. Premium Services. Stock Advisor. View Our Services. Our Purpose:. Much like regular dividend-paying stocks, REITs are appropriate for investors who want regular income, though they offer the opportunity for appreciation, too.

REITs invest in a variety of properties such as malls about a quarter of all REITs specialize in these , healthcare facilities, mortgages, and office buildings. In comparison to other types of real estate investments, REITs have the benefit of being highly liquid. Real estate investment groups REIGs are sort of like small mutual funds for rental properties.

A company will buy or build a set of buildings, often apartments, then allow investors to buy them through the company, thus joining the group. A single investor can own one or multiple units of self-contained living space. But the company that operates the investment group manages all the units and takes care of maintenance, advertising, and finding tenants. In exchange for this management, the company takes a percentage of the monthly rent. There are several versions of investment groups.

This means you will receive enough to pay the mortgage even if your unit is empty. The quality of an investment group depends entirely on the company that offers it. In theory, it is a safe way to get into real estate investment, but groups may charge the kind of high fees that haunt the mutual fund industry. As with all investments, research is key. A real estate limited partnership RELP is similar to a real estate investment group. It is an entity formed to buy and hold a portfolio of properties, or sometimes just one property.

However, RELPs exist for a finite number of years. An experienced property manager or real estate development firm serves as the general partner. Outside investors are then sought to provide financing for the real estate project, in exchange for a share of ownership as limited partners. Real estate mutual funds invest primarily in REITs and real estate operating companies. They provide the ability to gain diversified exposure to real estate with a relatively small amount of capital.

Depending on their strategy and diversification goals, they provide investors with much broader asset selection than can be achieved through buying individual REITs. Like REITs, these funds are pretty liquid. Another significant advantage to retail investors is the analytical and research information provided by the fund. More speculative investors can invest in a family of real estate mutual funds, tactically overweighting certain property types or regions to maximize return.

In general, the real estate market is one of low volatility , especially compared to equities and bonds. Real estate is also attractive when compared with more traditional sources of income return. This asset class typically trades at a yield premium to U. Treasuries and is especially attractive in an environment where Treasury rates are low. Another benefit of investing in real estate is its diversification potential.

Real estate has a low and, in some cases, negative, correlation with other major asset classes—meaning, when stocks are down, real estate is often up. This means the addition of real estate to a portfolio can lower its volatility and provide a higher return per unit of risk. Because it is backed by brick and mortar, direct real estate also carries less principal-agent conflict , or the extent to which the interest of the investor is dependent on the integrity and competence of managers and debtors.

Even the more indirect forms of investment carry some protection. The inflation-hedging capability of real estate stems from the positive relationship between gross domestic product GDP growth and demand for real estate. As economies expand, the demand for real estate drives rents higher, and this, in turn, translates into higher capital values.

Therefore, real estate tends to maintain the purchasing power of capital by passing some of the inflationary pressure onto tenants and by incorporating some of the inflationary pressure, in the form of capital appreciation. With the exception of REITs, investing in real estate gives an investor one tool that is not available to stock market investors: leverage.

Leverage means to use debt to finance a larger purchase than you have the available cash for. If you want to buy a stock, you have to pay the full value of the stock at the time you place the buy order—unless you are buying on margin. And even then, the percentage you can borrow is still much less than with real estate, thanks to that magical financing method, the mortgage.

This means that you can control the whole property and the equity it holds by only paying a fraction of the total value. Of course, the size of your mortgage affects the amount of ownership you actually have in the property, but you control it the minute the papers are signed. This is what emboldens real estate flippers and landlords alike. They can take out a second mortgage on their homes and put down payments on two or three other properties.

Whether they rent these out so that tenants pay the mortgage, or they wait for an opportunity to sell for a profit, they control these assets, despite having only paid for a small part of the total value. Home prices tend to rise along with inflation. This is because homebuilders' costs rise with inflation, which must be passed on to buyers of new homes.

Existing homes, too, rise with inflation though. If you hold a fixed-rate mortgage, as inflation rises, your fixed monthly payments become effectively more affordable. Moreover, if you are a landlord, you can increase the rent to keep up with inflation.

Because real estate is such a large and costly asset, loans must often be taken out to finance their purchase. Because of this, interest rate hikes make mortgage payments more costly for new loans or on existing adjustable-rate loans like ARMs. This can discourage buyers, who must factor in the cost to carry the property month-to-month.

Real estate can be a sound investment, and one that has the potential to provide a steady income and build wealth. Still, one drawback of investing in real estate is illiquidity : the relative difficulty in converting an asset into cash and cash into an asset.

Unlike a stock or bond transaction, which can be completed in seconds, a real estate transaction can take months to close. Even with the help of a broker , simply finding the right counterparty can be a few weeks of work. Of course, REITs and real estate mutual funds offer better liquidity and market pricing. But they come at the price of higher volatility and lower diversification benefits, as they have a much higher correlation to the overall stock market than direct real estate investments.

As with any investment, keep your expectations realistic, and be sure to do your homework and research before making any decisions. Mortgage lending discrimination is illegal. If you think you've been discriminated against based on race, religion, sex, marital status, use of public assistance, national origin, disability, or age, there are steps you can take. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Federal Trade Commission.

Securities and Exchange Commission. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. Real Estate Investing. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses.

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