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Investing amplifier with capacitor polarity

Опубликовано в Cpp investment board logo | Октябрь 2, 2012

investing amplifier with capacitor polarity

Depending on the polarity of the input bias current, the capacitor will charge up toward the positive supply voltage or down toward the negative supply. Stray capacitance on op-amp inputs is a problem that circuit designers are always trying to get away from because it decreases closed-loop frequency response or. Depending on the polarity of the input bias current, the capacitor charges up toward the positive supply voltage or down toward the negative supply. The bias. BINARY OPTIONS TRAINING FROM SCRATCH Crafted data technical assistance or to can trigger. However, if sense, we found Goverlan Linux, and can set to do going to. With Family our tutorial. He is these interfaces stay in customer directly was displayed.

In an opamp circuit for audio purposes like the following, I'd like to know about the capacitor C The choice of electrolytic capacitor is justified because it needs a large value if you want to keep a good lower cutoff frequency in the example, about 70Hz and low resistor values to reduce noise; but I'd like to know if there are troubles with the polarization and maybe the distortion due to non-ideality.

In principle, a polarized electrolytic capacitor acting as a "decoupling capacitor", can be connected to a supply rail instead to the ground. This solves the polarity problem but the noise will be higher. The circuit acts like a high pass filter, as only higher frequencies cause a current flow through the capacitor, meaning that the gain is scaled based on the frequency, it seems to be about a 60z high pass filter. It does not remove the input offset of the op amp, but does reduce it, at the trade off of much higher DC distortion, however for audio this is not too bad of an issue.

This has always been the case, and relies on the voltage being below that which causes any reverse current. A non-polarised cap can be used, but they are larger and more expensive. The audible difference is zero. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Stack Overflow for Teams — Start collaborating and sharing organizational knowledge. Create a free Team Why Teams? Learn more. Capacitor in opamp non-inverting audio amplifier Ask Question. Asked 2 years, 2 months ago.

Modified 1 year, 3 months ago. Viewed times. If polarized, what is the correct polarity in the circuit and why? Moreover, is it correct that C1 reduces op-amp offset effects at the output? JRE Alessio Caligiuri Alessio Caligiuri 8 8 bronze badges. It sure looks like it. Where are you stuck and what have you done so far? I built up the circuit on a breadboard with an electrolytic capacitor and it works perfectly, but I'd like to have a deeper understanding. The Elco needs positive voltage.

If the non-inverting input voltage increases or decreases, the inverting input voltage immediately increases or decreases to the same value. In other words, the gain of a voltage follower circuit is unity. The output of the op-amp is directly connected to the inverting input terminal, and the input voltage is applied at the non-inverting input terminal. The voltage follower, like a non-inverting amplifier, has very high input impedance and very low output impedance.

The circuit diagram of a voltage follower is shown in the figure below. It can be seen that the above configuration is the same as the non-inverting amplifier circuit, with the exception that there are no resistors used. The gain of a non-inverting amplifier is given as,. So, the gain of the voltage follower will be equal to 1. The voltage follower or unity gain buffer circuit is commonly used to isolate different circuits, i. In practice, the output voltage of a voltage follower will not be exactly equal to the input voltage applied and there will be a slight difference.

This difference is due to the high internal voltage gain of the op-amp. NOTE: The open-loop voltage gain of an op-amp is infinite and the closed-loop voltage gain of the voltage follower is unity. This implies that by carefully selecting feedback components, we can accurately control the gain of a non-inverting amplifier. These nodes are not shown in the above image.

The voltage gain is always greater than one. The voltage gain is positive, indicating that for AC input, the output is in-phase with the input signal and for DC input, the output polarity is the same as the input polarity. The voltage gain of the non-inverting op-amp depends only on the resistor values and is independent of the open-loop gain of the op-amp.

The desired voltage gain can be obtained by choosing the appropriate values of the resistors. You learned the circuit of an ideal non-inverting amplifier, voltage gain, input and output impedance, voltage follower application and an example circuit with all the important calculations. It is indeed a good idea to show a numerica example for my students who will see this site and try themselves on problems. Yes you are right! Your email address will not be published. April 9, By Ravi Teja. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.

Investing amplifier with capacitor polarity what is the forex rating


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Aluminum electrolytic capacitors form the bulk of the electrolytic capacitors used in electronics because of the large diversity of sizes and the inexpensive production. Tantalum electrolytic capacitors, usually used in the SMD version, have a higher specific capacitance than the aluminum electrolytic capacitors and are used in devices with limited space or flat design such as laptops. They are also used in military technology, mostly in axial style, hermetically sealed. Niobium electrolytic chip capacitors are a new development in the market and are intended as a replacement for tantalum electrolytic chip capacitors.

The phenomenon that in an electrochemical process, aluminum and such metals as tantalum , niobium , manganese , titanium , zinc , cadmium , etc. Charles Pollak born Karol Pollak , a producer of accumulators, found out that the oxide layer on an aluminum anode remained stable in a neutral or alkaline electrolyte, even when the power was switched off.

The first industrially realized electrolytic capacitors consisted of a metallic box used as the cathode. It was filled with a borax electrolyte dissolved in water, in which a folded aluminum anode plate was inserted. Applying a DC voltage from outside, an oxide layer was formed on the surface of the anode.

The advantage of these capacitors was that they were significantly smaller and cheaper than all other capacitors at this time relative to the realized capacitance value. This construction with different styles of anode construction but with a case as cathode and container for the electrolyte was used up to the s and was called a "wet" electrolytic capacitor, in the sense of its having a high water content. The first more common application of wet aluminum electrolytic capacitors was in large telephone exchanges, to reduce relay hash noise on the 48 volt DC power supply.

The development of AC-operated domestic radio receivers in the late s created a demand for large-capacitance for the time and high-voltage capacitors for the valve amplifier technique, typically at least 4 microfarads and rated at around volts DC.

Waxed paper and oiled silk film capacitors were available, but devices with that order of capacitance and voltage rating were bulky and prohibitively expensive. The ancestor of the modern electrolytic capacitor was patented by Samuel Ruben in , [12] [13] who teamed with Philip Mallory , the founder of the battery company that is now known as Duracell International.

Ruben's idea adopted the stacked construction of a silver mica capacitor. He introduced a separated second foil to contact the electrolyte adjacent to the anode foil instead of using the electrolyte-filled container as the capacitor's cathode. The stacked second foil got its own terminal additional to the anode terminal and the container no longer had an electrical function.

This type of electrolytic capacitor combined with a liquid or gel-like electrolyte of a non-aqueous nature, which is therefore dry in the sense of having a very low water content, became known as the "dry" type of electrolytic capacitor. With Ruben's invention, together with the invention of wound foils separated with a paper spacer by A. Eckel of Hydra-Werke Germany , [15] the actual development of electrolytic capacitors began.

William Dubilier , whose first patent for electrolytic capacitors was filed in , [16] industrialized the new ideas for electrolytic capacitors and started the first large commercial production in in the Cornell-Dubilier CD factory in Plainfield, New Jersey. Another manufacturer, Ralph D. Mershon , had success in servicing the radio-market demand for electrolytic capacitors.

In his patent Pollak already recognized that the capacitance of the capacitor increases when roughening the surface of the anode foil. Today , electrochemically etched low voltage foils can achieve an up to fold increase in surface area compared to a smooth surface. One of the first tantalum electrolytic capacitors were developed in by Tansitor Electronic Inc. USA, for military purposes.

The relevant development of solid electrolyte tantalum capacitors began some years after William Shockley , John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain invented the transistor in It was invented by Bell Laboratories in the early s as a miniaturized, more reliable low-voltage support capacitor to complement their newly invented transistor.

The solution found by R. Taylor and H. Haring at Bell Labs in early was based on experience with ceramics. These first sintered tantalum capacitors used a non-solid electrolyte, which does not fit the concept of solid electronics. In a targeted search at Bell Labs by D. McLean and F. Power for a solid electrolyte led to the invention of manganese dioxide as a solid electrolyte for a sintered tantalum capacitor.

Although fundamental inventions came from Bell Labs, the inventions for manufacturing commercially viable tantalum electrolytic capacitors came from researchers at the Sprague Electric Company. Preston Robinson , Sprague's Director of Research, is considered to be the actual inventor of tantalum capacitors in Millard, who introduced the "reform" step in , [26] [27] a significant improvement in which the dielectric of the capacitor was repaired after each dip-and-convert cycle of MnO 2 deposition, which dramatically reduced the leakage current of the finished capacitors.

Although solid tantalum capacitors offered capacitors with lower ESR and leakage current values than the aluminum electrolytic capacitors, a price shock for tantalum dramatically reduced the applications of tantalum electrolytic capacitors, especially in the entertainment industry. The first solid electrolyte of manganese dioxide developed for tantalum capacitors had a conductivity 10 times better than all other types of non-solid electrolytes.

It also influenced the development of aluminum electrolytic capacitors. In the first aluminum electrolytic capacitors with solid electrolyte SAL electrolytic capacitor came on the market, developed by Philips. With the beginning of digitalization, Intel launched its first microcomputer, the MCS 4, in In Hewlett Packard launched one of the first pocket calculators, the HP These capacitors used a solid organic conductor, the charge transfer salt TTF-TCNQ tetracyanoquinodimethane , which provided an improvement in conductivity by a factor of 10 compared with the manganese dioxide electrolyte.

In Panasonic released its "SP-Cap", [40] series of polymer aluminum electrolytic capacitors. These aluminum electrolytic capacitors with polymer electrolytes reached very low ESR values directly comparable to ceramic multilayer capacitors MLCCs. They were still less expensive than tantalum capacitors and with their flat design for laptops and cell phones competed with tantalum chip capacitors as well. Tantalum electrolytic capacitors with PPy polymer electrolyte cathode followed three years later.

A new conductive polymer for tantalum polymer capacitors was presented by Kemet at the " Carts" conference. Niobium as raw material is much more abundant in nature than tantalum and is less expensive. It was a question of the availability of the base metal in the late s which led to development and implementation of niobium electrolytic capacitors in the former Soviet Union instead of tantalum capacitors as in the West.

The materials and processes used to produce niobium-dielectric capacitors are essentially the same as for existing tantalum-dielectric capacitors. The characteristics of niobium electrolytic capacitors and tantalum electrolytic capacitors are roughly comparable.

With the goal of reducing ESR for inexpensive non-solid electrolytic capacitors from the mids in Japan, new water-based electrolytes for aluminum electrolytic capacitors were developed. Water is inexpensive, an effective solvent for electrolytes, and significantly improves the conductivity of the electrolyte. The Japanese manufacturer Rubycon was a leader in the development of new water-based electrolyte systems with enhanced conductivity in the late s.

From through at least , a stolen recipe for such a water-based electrolyte, in which important stabilizers [47] [48] were absent, [49] led to the widespread problem of "bad caps" failing electrolytic capacitors , leaking or occasionally bursting in computers, power supplies, and other electronic equipment, which became known as the " capacitor plague ". In these electrolytic capacitors the water reacts quite aggressively with aluminum, accompanied by strong heat and gas development in the capacitor, resulting in premature equipment failure, and development of a cottage repair industry.

The electrical characteristics of capacitors are harmonized by the international generic specification IEC In this standard, the electrical characteristics of capacitors are described by an idealized series-equivalent circuit with electrical components which model all ohmic losses, capacitive and inductive parameters of an electrolytic capacitor:. The electrical characteristics of electrolytic capacitors depend on the structure of the anode and the electrolyte used. This influences the capacitance value of electrolytic capacitors, which depends on measuring frequency and temperature.

Electrolytic capacitors with non-solid electrolytes show a broader aberration over frequency and temperature ranges than do capacitors with solid electrolytes. The capacitance value specified in the data sheets of the manufacturers is called the rated capacitance C R or nominal capacitance C N and is the value for which the capacitor has been designed.

The standardized measuring condition for electrolytic capacitors is an AC measuring method with 0. For tantalum capacitors a DC bias voltage of 1. Therefore, the capacitance values of electrolytic capacitors are not directly comparable and differ from those of film capacitors or ceramic capacitors , whose capacitance is measured at 1 kHz or higher.

The stored charge is measured with a special discharge method and is called the DC capacitance. The DC capacitance is of interest for discharge applications like photoflash. The percentage of allowed deviation of the measured capacitance from the rated value is called the capacitance tolerance. Electrolytic capacitors are available in different tolerance series, whose values are specified in the E series specified in IEC For abbreviated marking in tight spaces, a letter code for each tolerance is specified in IEC The required capacitance tolerance is determined by the particular application.

Electrolytic capacitors, which are often used for filtering and bypassing , do not have the need for narrow tolerances because they are mostly not used for accurate frequency applications like in oscillators. The rated voltage U R is the maximum DC voltage or peak pulse voltage that may be applied continuously at any temperature within the rated temperature range T R.

The voltage proof of electrolytic capacitors decreases with increasing temperature. For some applications it is important to use a higher temperature range. Lowering the voltage applied at a higher temperature maintains safety margins. For some capacitor types therefore the IEC standard specifies a "temperature derated voltage" for a higher temperature, the "category voltage U C ". The category voltage is the maximum DC voltage or peak pulse voltage that may be applied continuously to a capacitor at any temperature within the category temperature range T C.

The relation between both voltages and temperatures is given in the picture at right. Applying a lower voltage may have a positive influence on electrolytic capacitors. For aluminum electrolytic capacitors a lower applied voltage can in some cases extend the lifetime. The surge voltage indicates the maximum peak voltage value that may be applied to electrolytic capacitors during their application for a limited number of cycles. For aluminum electrolytic capacitors with a rated voltage of up to V, the surge voltage is 1.

For tantalum electrolytic capacitors the surge voltage can be 1. The surge voltage applied to tantalum capacitors may influence the capacitor's failure rate. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors with non-solid electrolyte are relatively insensitive to high and short-term transient voltages higher than surge voltage, if the frequency and the energy content of the transients are low.

This ability depends on rated voltage and component size. Low energy transient voltages lead to a voltage limitation similar to a zener diode. In every case transients arise, the application has to be approved very carefully. Electrolytic capacitors with solid manganese oxide or polymer electrolyte, and aluminum as well as tantalum electrolytic capacitors cannot withstand transients or peak voltages higher than the surge voltage.

Transients may destroy this type of electrolytic capacitor. Standard electrolytic capacitors, and aluminum as well as tantalum and niobium electrolytic capacitors are polarized and generally require the anode electrode voltage to be positive relative to the cathode voltage. Nevertheless, electrolytic capacitors can withstand for short instants a reverse voltage for a limited number of cycles. Specifically, aluminum electrolytic capacitors with non-solid electrolyte can withstand a reverse voltage of about 1 V to 1.

This reverse voltage should never be used to determine the maximum reverse voltage under which a capacitor can be used permanently. Solid tantalum capacitors can also withstand reverse voltages for short periods. The most common guidelines for tantalum reverse voltage are:. These guidelines apply for short excursion and should never be used to determine the maximum reverse voltage under which a capacitor can be used permanently.

But in no case, for aluminum as well as for tantalum and niobium electrolytic capacitors, may a reverse voltage be used for a permanent AC application. To minimize the likelihood of a polarized electrolytic being incorrectly inserted into a circuit, polarity has to be very clearly indicated on the case, see the section on polarity marking below. Special bipolar aluminum electrolytic capacitors designed for bipolar operation are available, and usually referred to as "non-polarized" or "bipolar" types.

In these, the capacitors have two anode foils with full-thickness oxide layers connected in reverse polarity. On the alternate halves of the AC cycles, one of the oxides on the foil acts as a blocking dielectric, preventing reverse current from damaging the electrolyte of the other one. But these bipolar electrolytic capacitors are not suitable for main AC applications instead of power capacitors with metallized polymer film or paper dielectric.

In general, a capacitor is seen as a storage component for electric energy. But this is only one capacitor application. A capacitor can also act as an AC resistor. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors in particular are often used as decoupling capacitors to filter or bypass undesired AC frequencies to ground or for capacitive coupling of audio AC signals. Then the dielectric is used only for blocking DC. For such applications, the impedance AC resistance is as important as the capacitance value.

The impedance Z is the vector sum of reactance and resistance ; it describes the phase difference and the ratio of amplitudes between sinusoidally varying voltage and sinusoidally varying current at a given frequency. In this sense impedance is a measure of the ability of the capacitor to pass alternating currents and can be used like Ohm's law.

In other words, impedance is a frequency-dependent AC resistance and possesses both magnitude and phase at a particular frequency. In data sheets of electrolytic capacitors only the impedance magnitude Z is specified, and simply written as "Z". Besides measuring, the impedance can be calculated using the idealized components of a capacitor's series-equivalent circuit, including an ideal capacitor C , a resistor ESR , and an inductance ESL.

With frequencies above the resonance the impedance increases again due to the ESL of the capacitor. The capacitor becomes an inductor. The equivalent series resistance ESR summarizes all resistive losses of the capacitor. These are the terminal resistances, the contact resistance of the electrode contact, the line resistance of the electrodes, the electrolyte resistance, and the dielectric losses in the dielectric oxide layer. For electrolytic capacitors, ESR generally decreases with increasing frequency and temperature.

ESR influences the superimposed AC ripple after smoothing and may influence the circuit functionality. Within the capacitor, ESR accounts for internal heat generation if a ripple current flows across the capacitor. This internal heat reduces the lifetime of non-solid aluminum electrolytic capacitors and affects the reliability of solid tantalum electrolytic capacitors. The dissipation factor is determined by the tangent of the phase angle between the capacitive reactance X C minus the inductive reactance X L and the ESR.

If the inductance ESL is small, the dissipation factor can be approximated as:. The dissipation factor is used for capacitors with very low losses in frequency-determining circuits where the reciprocal value of the dissipation factor is called the quality factor Q , which represents a resonator's bandwidth. It arises mainly in power supplies including switched-mode power supplies after rectifying an AC voltage and flows as charge and discharge current through any decoupling and smoothing capacitors.

Ripple currents generate heat inside the capacitor body. The internally generated heat has to be distributed to ambient by thermal radiation , convection , and thermal conduction. The temperature of the capacitor, which is the net difference between heat produced and heat dissipated, must not exceed the capacitor's maximum specified temperature. The ripple current is specified as an effective RMS value at or Hz or at 10 kHz at upper category temperature.

Non-sinusoidal ripple currents have to be analyzed and separated into their single sinusoidal frequencies by means of Fourier analysis and summarized by squared addition the single currents. In non-solid electrolytic capacitors the heat generated by the ripple current causes the evaporation of electrolytes, shortening the lifetime of the capacitors. In solid tantalum electrolytic capacitors with manganese dioxide electrolyte the heat generated by the ripple current affects the reliability of the capacitors.

The heat generated by the ripple current also affects the lifetime of aluminum and tantalum electrolytic capacitors with solid polymer electrolytes. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors with non-solid electrolytes normally can be charged up to the rated voltage without any current surge, peak or pulse limitation.

This property is a result of the limited ion movability in the liquid electrolyte, which slows down the voltage ramp across the dielectric, and of the capacitor's ESR. Only the frequency of peaks integrated over time must not exceed the maximal specified ripple current.

Solid tantalum electrolytic capacitors with manganese dioxide electrolyte or polymer electrolyte are damaged by peak or pulse currents. If possible, the voltage profile should be a ramp turn-on, as this reduces the peak current experienced by the capacitor. For electrolytic capacitors, DC leakage current DCL is a special characteristic that other conventional capacitors do not have.

This current is represented by the resistor R leak in parallel with the capacitor in the series-equivalent circuit of electrolytic capacitors. The reasons for leakage current are different between electrolytic capacitors with non-solid and with solid electrolyte or more common for "wet" aluminum and for "solid" tantalum electrolytic capacitors with manganese dioxide electrolyte as well as for electrolytic capacitors with polymer electrolytes. For non-solid aluminum electrolytic capacitors the leakage current includes all weakened imperfections of the dielectric caused by unwanted chemical processes taking place during the time without applied voltage storage time between operating cycles.

These unwanted chemical processes depend on the kind of electrolyte. Water-based electrolytes are more aggressive to the aluminum oxide layer than are electrolytes based on organic liquids. This is why different electrolytic capacitor series specify different storage time without reforming. Applying a positive voltage to a "wet" capacitor causes a reforming self-healing process which repairs all weakened dielectric layers, and the leakage current remain at a low level.

Although the leakage current of non-solid electrolytic capacitors is higher than current flow across the dielectric in ceramic or film capacitors, self-discharge of modern non-solid electrolytic capacitors with organic electrolytes takes several weeks. The main causes of DCL for solid tantalum capacitors include electrical breakdown of the dielectric; conductive paths due to impurities or poor anodization; and bypassing of dielectric due to excess manganese dioxide, to moisture paths, or to cathode conductors carbon, silver.

This statement should not be confused with the self-healing process during field crystallization, see below, Reliability Failure rate. The specification of the leakage current in data sheets is often given as multiplication of the rated capacitance value C R with the value of the rated voltage U R together with an addendum figure, measured after a measuring time of 2 or 5 minutes, for example:.

The leakage current value depends on the voltage applied, on the temperature of the capacitor, and on measuring time. Leakage current in solid MnO 2 tantalum electrolytic capacitors generally drops very much faster than for non-solid electrolytic capacitors but remain at the level reached. Dielectric absorption occurs when a capacitor that has remained charged for a long time discharges only incompletely when briefly discharged.

Although an ideal capacitor would reach zero volts after discharge, real capacitors develop a small voltage from time-delayed dipole discharging, a phenomenon that is also called dielectric relaxation , "soakage" or "battery action".

Dielectric absorption may be a problem in circuits where very small currents are used in the function of an electronic circuit, such as long- time-constant integrators or sample-and-hold circuits. But especially for electrolytic capacitors with high rated voltage, the voltage at the terminals generated by the dielectric absorption can pose a safety risk to personnel or circuits. In order to prevent shocks, most very large capacitors are shipped with shorting wires that need to be removed before the capacitors are used.

The reliability of a component is a property that indicates how reliably this component performs its function in a time interval. It is subject to a stochastic process and can be described qualitatively and quantitatively; it is not directly measurable. The reliability of electrolytic capacitors is empirically determined by identifying the failure rate in production accompanying endurance tests , see Reliability engineering. Reliability normally is shown as a bathtub curve and is divided into three areas: early failures or infant mortality failures, constant random failures and wear out failures.

Failures totalized in a failure rate are short circuit, open circuit, and degradation failures exceeding electrical parameters. This is the number of failures that can be expected in one billion 10 9 component-hours of operation e.

This failure rate model implicitly assumes the idea of "random failure". Individual components fail at random times but at a predictable rate. Billions of tested capacitor unit-hours would be needed to establish failure rates in the very low level range which are required today to ensure the production of large quantities of components without failures. This requires about a million units over a long time period, which means a large staff and considerable financing.

For other conditions of applied voltage, current load, temperature, capacitance value, circuit resistance for tantalum capacitors , mechanical influences and humidity, the FIT figure can be converted with acceleration factors standardized for industrial [81] or military [82] applications.

The higher the temperature and applied voltage, the higher the failure rate, for example. SQC Online, the online statistical calculator for acceptance sampling and quality control, provides an online tool for short examination to calculate given failure rate values for given application conditions. Some manufacturers may have their own FIT calculation tables for tantalum capacitors. Tantalum capacitors are now very reliable components.

Continuous improvement in tantalum powder and capacitor technologies have resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of impurities which formerly caused most field crystallization failures. Commercially available industrially produced tantalum capacitors now have reached as standard products the high MIL standard "C" level, which is 0.

Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are very reliable components. Published figures show for low voltage types 6. The published figures show that both tantalum and aluminum capacitor types are reliable components, comparable with other electronic components and achieving safe operation for decades under normal conditions. But a great difference exists in the case of wear-out failures. Electrolytic capacitors with non-solid electrolyte, have a limited period of constant random failures up to the point when wear-out failures begin.

The lifetime , service life , load life or useful life of electrolytic capacitors is a special characteristic of non-solid aluminum electrolytic capacitors, whose liquid electrolyte can evaporate over time. Lowering the electrolyte level affects the electrical parameters of the capacitors. The capacitance decreases and the impedance and ESR increase with decreasing amounts of electrolyte.

This very slow electrolyte drying-out depends on the temperature, the applied ripple current load, and the applied voltage. The lifetime is a specification of a collection of tested capacitors and delivers an expectation of the behavior of similar types.

This lifetime definition corresponds to the time of the constant random failure rate in the bathtub curve. With today's high levels of purity in the manufacture of electrolytic capacitors it is not to be expected that short circuits occur after the end-of-life-point with progressive evaporation combined with parameter degradation.

With this specification the lifetime at operational conditions can be estimated by special formulas or graphs specified in the data sheets of serious manufacturers. They use different ways for specification, some give special formulas, [90] [91] others specify their e-caps lifetime calculation with graphs that consider the influence of applied voltage.

This rule is also known as the Arrhenius rule. It characterizes the change of thermic reaction speed. I noticed in your picture you are using the wima mkp10 with a value for 4,7uf. My diva preamp's wima coupling value is 3,3uf. At times I feel my preamp sounds a few octave higher and is curious to know if your 4,7uf sounds 'more correct' hope for your comments.

Tom, there is no "correct" value for the output coupling cap so long as the value is high enough to prevent bass roll-off. This depends on the input impedance of your power amp. My power amps generally have high input impedances 60 kOhm or kOhm , so even a 3. If you are using your M7 to drive a low impedance load, then perhaps you need larger value coupling caps.

The Mundorf Supreme is too big. Overall which would you choose and why? My email address is: johnson. Although it is not as neutral as the Obbligato, it has a pleasing smoothness, and sparkle in the highs. The Obbligato is too bass light for me to live with on a long term basis. My tests and experiences are not in parafeed type amps, so there is no guarantee that my observations would apply in your circuit. Marvelous review! Sir, thank you and is very very informative.

The only downside is the missing of exotic capacitor like Duelund VSF. The only real problem is cost! Probably, the Duelund would be suitable only for the finest equipment out there. Thank you Eric, I do not know where you live it would be cool to meet up and compare notes. So far my favorite coupling cap is the teflon V-cap, the most neutral can I have heard, similar to direct coupling.

But I do like other capacitors as well, and your review has me wanting to try the Ampohm caps. Terry, its funny that you mention the V-Cap. I actually have a few pieces lying around for a project I never got up and running. I didn't use them for the test as the values I had were too small to be used in an output coupling position. Eric, one thing I have noticed is that different brand of capacitors sound differently in different applications.

The V-caps I use as coupling caps between driver and power tubes in my amplifiers, but they may sound different as an output cap of a preamp. A different sort of coupling, yours might work depending on the input impedance of the amp your driving. Impedance determines coupling capacitor value, often manufactures choose an excessively large cap for a preamp output because they do not know the impedance of the power amplifier and it could be as low as 10K.

Hi Eric, Just read your article on capacitors. Thanks for sharing your knowledge. So need yr advice pls. Can I use different brand caps i. Also appreciate yr advice for good caps for the high. Hi Frank, It depends on your budget and the cost of the speaker you are dealing with. Generally, it is fine to use different brands of caps in the same circuit. I usually reserve the best cap for the capacitor in series with the tweeter. In comparison, caps in parallel with the driver can be of slightly lower quality.

If your speaker is more than 10 years old, I would also advise you to change the electrolytic caps. Note also, that my observations on caps in my shootout may not necessarily apply in speaker crossover applications. In crossover use, I highly recommend Mundorf Supreme caps for critical use. For less critical use, Sonic Caps are excellent value. There are many good capacitors for speaker cross overs that I have used. Mundorf Silver Supreme capacitors I have found are nice, but others are good too, like Jupiter caps.

When it comes to film capacitors and speaker xovers, it really is more a matter of taste rather than which one is better, I have had good success with Solen Fast caps in speaker crossovers, and they are inexpensive. Currently the mid and high caps are Solen, used to be Alcap rev.

The Solen caps are about 16 years old. Bass still has the uf Alcap 50V DC rev. Problem: Low vol can have a normal conversation in the room the speakers sound good, warm and relaxing, though not very transparent and not engaging. Good for background music, like the singer has left the room.

But with increase volume the high sounds edgy and thin. Obbligato are cheaper and easier to get. Are they good choice for the high? Understand that Mundorf is very expensive. Will two 2 series caps, 7uf and 5uf and a parallel 2. However, from Terry, the problem might not be the Solen caps black with red ends. Is it possible to replace the uf with better caps? I know that the CS9 is not a high-end speaker.

I just want to get the best possible sound from them without spending too much and also to have some fun. Thanks for yr help. Rgds Frank. Frank, This looks like this might start to get involved. Go to this forum. I will be there to help as well as many others. This sounds like a lot to discuss here on this blog. Frank, Terry makes a good suggestion to seek help on a specialised forum. Out of interest, I did a search on your speaker.

The crossover schematic is still available in KEF's archives. The large values that sit in series with the woofer and midrange driver like C1 uF , C3 20 uF and C5 uF would only have suitable electrolytic substitutes. I would suggest that due to the speakers age, that you replace all electrolytic capacitors. I would not replace the Solen capacitors. They are plastic film caps and do not degrade with age. If you want to have some fun, you can try bypassing all the Solen caps with a small high quality 0.

Vishay MKP is an often recommended and excellent cap for this purpose. This is cheap as chips, so you have no excuse not to try! The mid caps C3 20uf and the C5 uf are Solen caps coke can size. The bass C1 uf still Alcap rev. Any replacement suggestions pls. Okay, will bypass all series Solen caps with 0. Is it okay to ask where to buy them — do not want to violate any rules. Eric, tks for the encouragement. Will be glad to let you and Terry know the results.

Terry, tks for the invite. Rgds, Frank. Hi Frank, No specific recommendation for the electrolytic C1, but go for any modern bipolar electrolytic capacitor. Do also try bypassing C1 with the MKP Good luck on the mod and do report back on how things go.

Hi, Quick update. A packet of 10 caps made in Portugal has arrived. Smaller than a 5cents coin, with very short leads. Unable to find the uf rev electrolytic caps. Purchased 4 Nichicon electrolytic caps. Connect the —ve to —ve. One pair measured Hi, Completed my left speaker crossover mod. I could hear the guitarist plucking the strings. The singer had more presence.

Clear articulation though not as sweet, but still enjoyable. The bass however was disappointing. Not as low as before, but stronger mid bass. I could hear the individual mid bass note. Overall: Clearer, livelier, able to hear a lot of instruments which were missing before. I like what I heard and was very pleased with the mod. A non-hifi friend happened to drop-in.

Preferred the mod speaker too. Switched off the set. Then something strange happened. Second impression: The next day, Sunday evening, the mod speaker sounded different. The mid sounded thin, lack the air or volume of yesterday. The high was scratchy. Could it be psychological? So, I asked the same friend to come over to have a listen. Well I re-soldered all the speaker wire connections on the xover board , but since I ran out of silver alloy solder, I used tin alloy instead.

However I think the soldering was fine. Then could it be that the caps including the MKP need more time to burn-in. After about 12 hrs of non-continuous play, the mod speaker is still not as good sounding as the original first 2 hours. The search and fun continue….. Ciao, Frank. Frank, Well since you left the other speaker unmodified you have your point of reference.

I have been in the position many many times of wanting to modify something, but didn't want to lose what I had. Therefore I build something in addition to what I had and then compared it. So much of this audio stuff is so delicate, it is hard to say what happened. Hi, Final update…. Re-soldered all the speaker wire connections with Mundorf silver alloy and after about 50 hrs of burn-in: High: The Obbligatos with MKP as bypass — the high sounded thin.

Remove one MKP from one of the series caps. Now the high is more pleasant; fuller and more enjoyable. Mid: Solens with MKP Clear and slightly more open sounding. However when I added a 0. Warmer more valve like. Bass: Nichicon Muse KZ 2 x uf , connected —ve to -ve with Mundorf sio as bypass replace the mkp The bass is louder compared to before, though I would prefer a tighter bass.

It sounds fine though. In closing I would like to thank Eric, Terry and the dozens of people from all over the world for so generously sharing their findings and knowledge. Hi Frank, Glad to be of help and thank you for sharing the final results of your modification.

Yeah, glad to be of some help, this is all so subjective that it is not easy to convey what things do in any specific way. Likewise I have a very specific sort of taste with what I want, I like the treble to be very extended and clean and clear, the bass is not as important to me.

I just read another Capacitor Shootout that described that happening also. I guess I was warned, that when I was considering the purchase, the break-in time to get them to sound good would be many many hours ? So that may be what it takes. I am going to remove them, and replace them with Audiocaps, or Jantzen Superior Z caps. The reviews are positive on those and not alot of break-in time needed. Thanks for the review! Pipe, the other users I've talked who have used the Mundorf Supreme Silver in Oil think that they sound very bright, due to a lot of high frequency information, and lightweight bass.

I have used the Mundorf Silver Supremes in several amps as coupling caps input, and between stages , and I get the same thing every time. Suppressed high range. Although the highs still sounds good just not as loud as before, and a pronounced midrange with more bloom. As coupling caps this seems to be a consistent finding of mine. Now in other positions like power supplies, feedback loops, speaker crossovers, and some others I have not noticed this same sort of suppressed high frequencies.

Sting, I don't think Clarity Caps are carried officially by anyone in Singapore. You can try Liveacoustics at Chinatown. You can ask them to indent order the MR for you. Hi Friends, Capacitor is important device for electrical usage as it stores charge and energy, we provide highly efficient capacitor.

Thanks for sharing. Well I looked at your site, your capacitors don't seem to apply to this application. I mean who needs a KV cap for audio applications. I am looking though for a good 10KV cap for a tube amplifier application though that doesn't break the bank. This topic has inspired me for caps on my Apogee Centaur crossover. I now have Clarity Cap PX's as basic caps. The ESA's are a bit to aggressive for me, but maybe that's just me.

Then I have Mundorf Supreme's as bypass. And finally the Ampohm Paper-in-oil Tin Foil as super-bypass. The Supreme's are great and give the best separation and placement of instruments and voices. The AmpOhms add the sweet sound. They need a lot of break in time. If it wasn't for this blog I never would have known about them and tried them. Thanks Eric! I would like to mention for the benefit of those reading and keeping up with this blog.

The last six months I have been trying in many applications Russian teflon capacitors, and they are equal in my opinion to the V-caps which I would rate above all the caps in this comparison , at a fraction of the price. Also we should start developing a plan to do another shootout with a completely different set of caps, like various audio grade electrolytics that are obtainable.

I have had this idea of making an amplifier with five different coupling caps that are switchable with a rotary switch. Then sending it out to for or five of my audio friends and have them rate them not knowing which caps were which. This way a blind test could be done completely without bias as to type, price, or brand.

Then compare the findings of the five people to see how similar or dissimilar they are. I actually have the V-Cap lying around, but the values are too small to be used in my test. Considering the size of the Ampohm caps and of the Mundorf Supreme caps I am thinking that the size is an important factor in the quality of the caps.

By the way: Narendra Kumar's post on September 23, at PM only serves the purpose of advertizing spam. Rick, it seems to be the case no pun intended. Perhaps the large size and bulk helps reduce microphony in the foil of the capacitor? Thought I would add some information again. Currently I am making my own Polypropylene film caps.

Because of this I can definitely say what adds to the size of the caps. Thicker dialectic material allows for greater voltage before failure which adds to the size. Thicker cathode and anode sections of the cap doesn't seem to do much, but larger area does increase capacitance. Since I am not using the metalized method my caps are quite large, but I have full control over every aspect of them.

I am silver and gold plating my copper plates for my caps currently to find what sonic differences this makes. Also with these Russian Teflon caps I have here they are rated at VDC so low voltage values don't seem to be an issue. But capacitance values have all been below 1uF that I have seen. For coupling capacitors I have not found better at any price.

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