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Опубликовано в Cra investment test | Октябрь 2, 2012

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May 31, Over time audit practices will determine the appropriate values to assign to the metrics in each standard and common approaches to developing compliant evidence will evolve. Such common approaches will by their very nature support the alignment of approaches to digital preservation practice that will in turn reduce the cost of certification.

These various trust standards exist within a wider framework of standards as outlined above. Over time pape s, e sites a d othe auditee suppo ti g ate ials ill e ol e to p o ide g eate guida e o the application of trust metrics. This process will also identify community responses on how well the standards fit their needs, what level of certification is appropriate and how the trust standards compare to and interoperate with wider standards conferring quality assessments.

The maturity curve of applying standards in organisations starts from testing and benchmarking then moves through risk management towards quality management, eventually reaching an apogee in an organization capable of learning. Standardization in digital preservation is still at the beginning of this curve, focusing primarily on benchmarking the performance of curation tasks and beginning to look at risk management of preservation.

An organization that is mature and able to adapt to changes is, however, looking more at efficiency of processes than controls over products systems and their interoperability. When moving from quality control to quality assurance to quality management, the management of people and skills becomes the biggest challenge, instead of technology and workflow.

Reshaping an organization is more connected to its employees than the technologies it uses Ruusalepp et al. The same maturity curve seems also to be affecting the better understanding of the costs of these activities. Most organisations carrying out digital preservation welcomed the introduction of these methods of inculcating trust as a research activity rather than solely as a trust activity, hence the paucity of costs. Clearly, as digital curation becomes more mainstream, identifying costs for inculcating trust and improving quality will be more straight-forward, as they will be separated from standard organisational costs.

Finally, we should repeat ourselves: the formal checking of the quality of operations may enhance the reputation of a repository but trust per se should be engendered through measurable standardised controls. Reputation may seem to be synonymous with trust, but the relationship between them is vexed.

Reputation may be enhanced by other factors, unrelated to quality—and often symbolic; trust can only be fully gained through evidence-based, independent audit activities. Applying quality management principles induce a strong customer focus, enhance the motivation and implication of senior management, support process approach and continual improvement ISO, A by-product of introducing quality management and preparing for an assessment or audit is documentation that enables communication of intent, consistency of actions and which supports traceability.

This documentation also provides enhanced business continuity, especially where staff-turnover reduces knowledge transfer. Quality of service can be achieved or improved through application of best practice in activities and use of standard technologies.

However, in order to make quality measurable it needs to be assessed against established set of criteria. The results of the assessment or audit process can then be communicated and verified through certification. In reality there are two main drivers for using digital repository audit methods; first, increased trustworthiness of the repository among its stakeholder groups and ultimately a higher reputation of the organisation; second, increased quality of processes being undertaken.

The publication transparency of the audit results i. The digital curation service is often not directed at external clients but is offering an internal service to the parent organisation. Quality of operation and service needs to be demonstrated to internal clients, too.

Internal transparency of quality assessment ensures that management measures can be traced, effects of changes in economic scenarios can be evaluated, and documentation of quality can be shared with operators, funders, management and employees. Attaining trust status is not a one-time accomplishment; to retain trustworthy status, a repository will need to undertake a regular cycle of audit CCSDS Each audit can only measure a snapshot of the current state of quality; continuity of practice is assessed based on any policy framework enforced in the repository.

Nevertheless, it is u likel that a audit he e a d toda ill e o e all dou ts a out eposito s a ilit to deli e a se i e in the future. The type of trust repositories a e e pe ted to de o st ate is dispositio al t ust. It is the t usto s elief that it ill ha e a e tai goal B i the futu e a d, he e e it ill ha e su h a goal a d certain conditions obtain, the trustee will perform A and thereby will ensure B.

This generalised expectancy—dispositional trust—is operational when a decision to trust or not to trust is made in the absence of direct evidence as to whether another is or is not trustworthy Rotter , p. In the context of digital repositories we are almost invariably talking about the dispositional type of trust—when we consign our material to a repository we trust the repository to carry out active digital preservation actions on our deposited content in the future.

Hence, our trust expectation is directed towards the future activities of the repository, and we have very little and sometimes no evidence at hand that these activities will result with a successful outcome. The digital preservation community has not yet developed a practice for collecting evidence base for successful and unsuccessful digital preservation actions. The repository audit is, therefore, by default left with observing the current behaviour and studying documentary evidence on repository activities, and making only predictions on the future reliability of the repository services based on policies.

Reliance primarily on dispositional trust introduces uncertainty and risks into the audit outcomes, making also the certification of repositories questionable and, indeed, risky. The nature of auditing as a generic verification method that does not cater well for deciding on adequacy of future activities, services or states of affairs places high requirements on efficient and effective set of policies in the repository in order to demonstrate the ability to maintain the level of quality that an audit has verified.

A number of trust models have been developed for automated environments where decision-making to trust is based on quantified measures see Salo, Karjaluoto ; Debenham, Sierra ; Li, Ping ; Shekarpour, Katebi These odels i lude a protocol that is used to communicate the information components that enable a decision to be reached whether to trust or not a service. Each audit tool has its own mechanisms for reporting on the audit findings and the amount of evidence presented in the reports.

The result of this can be that the client will miss a good service—a long time can be spent on searching for additional evidence or proof; client is trying to instil too many controls over quality of service which cost extra time and money; client prescribes too much to the repository without relying on its competence to do its core business.

Independent certification mechanisms are designed to assist in overcoming these types of risks and to provide uniformity to disclosing information on audit results. There is an illusion that full transparency always leads to greater trustworthiness. Transparency may cause both over-confidence and over-diffidence depending on whether the level of understanding that the trustor has over the processes which the repository is supposed to be carrying out. One repository manager noted that their funder said they trusted them more because they published their policies on the web.

The funder had no ability to discern whether or not those policies were being appropriately implemented! Having audited and certified quality management systems can provide competitive advantage in the market and contribute towards increased reputation of the organisation.

As noted above section 2. These approaches were positioned into three hierarchical levels in a memorandum of understanding signed in between the groups working on audit methods. All su se ue t le els of e tifi atio ithi the f a e o k i pl the continued presence of a public DSA assessment though there are no barriers to adoption of the other methods independent of the Framework and therefore independent of the DSA.

The "Extended certification" represents a verified plausibility-checked , publically available self-assessment and "Formal certification" stands for an audit by external experts undertaking a standard-compliant audit process. Extended and formal certification are extensions of the Basic certification and both can be issued on the basis of DIN or ISO The German network of competence in digital preservation nestor has instituted a nestor Seal for Trustworthy Digital Archives that is issued after successful extended certification nestor In the U.

The choice of certification process and choice of approach to audit are important, because it is possible to undertake a self-assessment against ISO but not be formally audited see section 2. Similarly, an organisation may elect not to be formally audited against a standard owing to the actual cost of employing formal auditors.

The various certification types also engender different levels of transparency. If there are parts of documentation in the organisation or in the audit reports that are not suitable for the general public e. By defining their operational contexts, organisations are well positioned to determine their own assessment parameters as well as verify that their resources are optimally invested and positioned to ensure success.

Mapped to organisational aspirations and efforts this will facilitate subsequent organisational development and resource allocation, and offer a quantifiable insight into the contemporary severity of risks faced. This process, which should be repeated on a regular basis, will provide opportunities to establish and achieve quantifiable targets, facilitating the on-going development of every aspect of organisational activity.

It would be hard for ISO to prove mis-use of copyright. Once formally approved and published by the ISO as a standard, the formal certification of trusted digital repositories can commence and new benefits will emerge on the digital curation market.

The study concluded that Dobratz et al. The portability of quality management standards to the procedures and services in public administration is considered as virtually impossible. Often the enormous complexity of standards is seen as the main barrier to complete compliance.

Instead, standards are mis- used as guidelines and their principles applied to selected workflows and processes: documentation, transparency and quality control of ingested objects. The study reflected a strong demand for deeper and broader information on standards as well as support and training during the introduction of standards. The absence of guidance on applying quality standards to digital curation led some institutions to try a multitude of quality criteria.

The incentive for such an extensive investment into quality assurance came partly from the legal mandate of the digital curation service that set long-term requirements, and partly from in-house levels of quality applied to performance and risk management. The benefits of these assessments for the o ga isatio e e o ti ui g fu di g the fi al o je ti e as the ealisti e aluatio of the se i es p o ided to the o u ities , e usi ess oppo tu ities se i es fo e t pes of content and new client groups and a strong position for participating in the discussion of repository auditing and certification internationally.

The certification of repositories based on the TRAC checklist was borne out of a practical need; when library budgets shrank leaving less money for acquiring and preserving paper publications, the need to rely on digital publications grew and with it the need to trust CRL partner organisations to maintain the availability of these publications over the long term. It also identified for us several areas for continued improvement as well as ways in which we can enhance the service for CRL member libraries as ell as othe s.

Audit reports that lead to TRAC certificates are publically available20 and several repositories have also published their self-assessments. Internal Review—undertaking the work toward the DSA enables us to reflect on the way we work and review our policies and procedures.

In such a fast changing sector it is always beneficial to take time to consider whether we continue to meet the standards as they develop. Establishing bona fides—having the DSA will enhance our reputation both within our designated subject based community archaeology and within the wider world of digital preservation. The DSA will be a useful benchmark for comparison with other archives. Enhancing the trust of our users—digital archives, by their nature, do not benefit from having a long track record of sustainability unlike their counterparts in the world of traditional paper archives who have built up trust with both users and depositor, sometimes over several centuries.

The DSA enables us to demonstrate to both the users of our archive and depositors to our archive that we are working to a set of standards and have been judged to have met those standards. Building a community—gaining the DSA embeds us within a community of archives working to higher standards and potentially allows us to benefit from closer ties and relationships with the. The German National Library piloted the DIN standard and their evaluation of the audit process is described in the same deliverable.

The three US repositories were not APARSEN partners but indicated they sought some form of accreditation for a variety of reasons including the desire to demonstrate to management and reviewers that they were willing to undertake external, independent, international ISO evaluations in order to reach the highest standards in digital preservation.

The 4C project conducted interviews with stakeholders and collected written testimonials from organisations that have undergone a trusted digital repository audits see the questionnaire in Annex 1: to gauge further details on incentives and benefits of seeking certification based on standards.

DSA provided a framework of commonality that could be used beneficially by both mature and less mature organisations. This trust starts from the level of IT and information security that we have to prove to pu lishe s i the fi st pla e. But overall they seem rather reasonable without being too rigid—afte all e a e ot uildi g spa e o kets o u i g a a k. Many of these are not related directly to trust, but to the identification of both better quality practices and more efficient practices.

However, very few of the organisations we have spoken with have identified significant cost savings as a consequence of these activities, only additional costs. Some see these additional costs as being beneficial to the overall practice of digital curation, others believe that it gives them a competitive advantage, yet others believe its essential investment in maintaining a leadership role.

The lo gsta di g e pe ie e of traditional memory organisations, combined with their responsibility has given them a veil of sanctity with respect to trust, therefore audit has been rarely used. So what, if anything, has changed? Besides the fact that digital resources are much more vulnerable than traditional paper based documents, it may be that the new digital order has made people and organisations insecure about their use of technologies, whether their methods and procedures are sufficient and effective, and whether both of them can guarantee the authenticity and lo ge it of the digital o je ts the a e espo si le fo.

Today we see the concept of auditing becoming part of the mainstream dialogue in digital repositories and the potential motivations for undertaking audits are diverse. The 4C project gap analysis of digital curation cost models D3. The report concludes that relating the costs to benefits on quality of operations is still an undefined area that requires further research APARSEN b, p.

During the development of cost models it is presumed that the preservation rationale and benefits will have been separately developed, and will be implicit in the activities of the cost odel. Improving the quality of work and services is often associated with higher cost or at least significant start- up investment. In the digital repository context such investments are weighted against potential benefits arising from, for example higher trust from stakeholders and other indirect or diffuse results that often presume long-term investment.

Hence, putting a price tag or a ROI return on investment ratio on applying a standards-based quality measure is near to impossible, as it will vary from one organisation and its business case to another. The 4C project is, nevertheless, making a start on clarifying the economics of the first stage of the longer process of quality assurance—the audit and certification costs. The questionnaire was constructed in such a way as to be as generic i.

The questionnaire was also designed from an objective point of view, which is that it was not created from an examination of known or existing evidence but from an examination of the key activities that would most likely provide an input into a cost model. The full questionnaire is reproduced in Annex The second part of the questionnaire attempted to gather information on both the time used to carry out and implement an audit process and the direct cost of those activities.

The questionnaire ended with questions about the post-audit process and costs related to maintaining the received certificate. During the testing of the questionnaire with the 4C project partner organisations it became apparent that collecting all the evidence on audit costs for the survey is time-consuming and involves several experts within the organisation.

Nevertheless it was decided to contact approximately 40 organisations that had been shortlisted by the 4C task members as having undergone an audit and ask them to participate in the survey. All of the organisations that responded only 7 felt that the form of questioning was correct and that it attempted to elicit the right information, but timeframes were limited and none was able to provide the granular detail that we felt was necessary to make constructive comparisons between organisations.

Most of the respondents estimated that it would take two to three months to gather all the required data. This period extended beyond the delivery deadline of this report and would have left us without empirical basis for our analysis. As soon as these issues became fully apparent which was, unfortunately, rather late in the process, we reconsidered our methodology and focussed on carrying out a more qualitative approach. The questionnaire see Annex 1: was used as a template for interviews.

We also set up a focus group to discuss our preliminary findings in depth with our advisory board members representing funding organisations with responsibility for data archives and this discussion is summarised in the next section.

The qualitative data have informed our audit cost study and have been used to inform and confirm some of our conclusions. On the basis of this structure, the main areas are discussed below in sequence from the point of view of how they affect the economics of being audited. Organisation type may be a key driver in the motivation to undertake audit and certification activities.

The legal or regulatory framework or mandate of the organisation may necessitate the audits and at fixed intervals. The boundaries of the digital repository within a wider organisation can also determine the costs of an audit. Audit and certification activities are more likely to be applied within smaller organisations where the barrier to innovation is lower; or in organisations which have some form of contractual mandate to carry out certification processes.

For example, organisations that have some form of security mandate are required by data producers and sometimes the law to undertake some form of information or IT security certification. Conversely, organisations that have a legal mandate to preserve records are not usually required to undertake any form of trust certification.

Therefore ICPSR which carried out a self-assessment against the TRAC checklist in , found that its costs for self-assessing against DSA in was a lot less than it would have been if the earlier self-assessment had taken place. Not only were the overall costs less, the ratio between preparation of evidence and the follow-up activities was entirely reversed.

Self-assessment is usually undertaken as an internal exercise although it may involve external experts as facilitators of discussion. The results of self-assessment can often be documented and acted upon using traditional internal means and decision-making mechanisms. Once external verification of self-assessment results is sought, more effort will go into documenting the assessment and preparing documents regulating the repository work within the organisation.

Costs on ensuring transparency of policies and activities will go up together with the level of certification. Formal audit will involve the cost of contracting external auditors to carry out the evaluation and in some cases the price of the certificate issued. In some cases consultants with audit experience are also hired to help prepare for the audit process, which may have a significant impact on costs.

Consultants may cost more per day than internal staff but are generally more efficient because of their experience. However, internal staff are generally a fixed organisational cost, whereas consultants are more likely to be an additional cost. The effort required for a repeated audit or renewing certification is usually considerably lower than the first assessment.

DIN explicitly states that assess e t o e s oth o ga isatio al a d te h i al aspe ts; it is ot possi le to assess e el o e pa t of a digital a hi e e. For self-assessment, risk assessment or security audits it is possible to determine a narrower scope, for example, a single repository function e. Understandably, a narrower scope offers savings in terms of staff time involved in the assessment and preparation of documentation, but may fail unveiling issues in the bigger picture or a whole workflow.

Combined with the type and scope of the audit exercise they should provide an adequate tool for planning and budgeting the audit. The organisational context—total number of staff, the legal requirements, the designated user community also affect the level and spread of audit costs and the ability to produce activity based costs. The level of support that audit can receive from records management and other support-activities or infrastructure services of the organisation can also significantly vary the cost of the audit.

The first is the paucity of publically available cost information; the second is the lack of comparability of the cost information available. Owing mainly to the sensitivity of some of the information that has been received, it has proven impossible to present cost information at the level of granularity at which we had originally expected. The third reason is that ISO not reached the level of implementation maturity that we expected it would have by the time this report was being written.

Therefore, our evidence for the costs and benefits of the implementation of this standard is based solely on the test audits undertaken as part of the FP7 APARSEN project, which was focussed on test deployment of processes from the auditor rather than the auditee perspective, and where the capturing of costs of activities was not the primary focus of the test.

Our questionnaire attempted to gather information on both the time used to carry out and implement an audit process and the direct cost of those activities. In some cases for example, ISO , ISO toolkits are available, for a fee, to guide and support the preparation for an audit and self-assessment.

Hiring external experts and consultants has usually come at a higher fee than the user and guidance manuals although can provide advice tailored specifically for the organisation. In the case of information security audits some additional security-related software or installation for physical security had to be purchased. One repository reported the need to develop their repository management software at a significant cost in order to comply with the OAIS reference model requirements.

However, the developed functionalities were already in the product development roadmap and their realisation had to be simply expedited which also brought the associated development cost forward in time. Platforms and tools for document co-creation and sharing e.

Such displacement of existing staff from normal duties further complicates the calculation of overall cost. The costs of staff vary considerably across countries, and the roles of staff required may range from senior management to administrative staff it is hard to get a clear picture. Staff engagement will vary throughout this period totalling on average months FTE. Some examples from completed trusted digital repository self-assessments and audits are shown below.

These are highly impressionistic figures which do not take into account any earlier self-assessments or audits, and from interviews it is clear that precision is impossible. We would estimate that sixty person days of effort were expended on the process leading up to the arrival of the external audit team with ten pe so da s of effo t the eafte. The p epa atio took pla e i the o te t of the A hi e s on- going periodic review and update of controlled documents and the revision of materials required for our forthcoming surveillance audit against ISO , and may thus be a high estimate.

However, we would expect that this process would have been considerably more time-consuming without previous certification against ISO or some other audited process which included a detailed isk assess e t of the A hi e.

The DNB does not have a dedicated Digital Preservation unit, but staff that has to do with digital preservation is distributed over several units in the IT department. Preparations for the Certification Process were co-ordinated and mostly executed by one unit.

Staff from the other units participated in a meeting to review and discuss the information to be submitted for the External Audit plus some time for preparation and rework and in the Formal Audit plus some time for preparation. The Head of the Department supervised the process. In total This corresponds to. Many of the processes involved in audit, for example records management improvement, business process analysis, overlap with other desirable business outcomes it is often impossible to identify such work as purely an investment for audit.

This report discussed costs and benefits of standards-based quality assurance that is associated with trustworthiness through audits and certification practice. Two further reports will look into risk assessment and business models as cost determinants see the forthcoming D4. With digital curation maturing as a discipline, the focus of applying standards in the domain has shifted from quality of products to quality of processes and is beginning to gradually move towards quality of competences and skills of people.

Generally speaking, around , the state of the art in digital preservation was mostly concerned with evaluating the quality of products, software and solutions. Efficiency and costs associated with equipment were, as a rule, direct, measurable costs, e. In the focus of the digital curation domain is on evaluating the quality of digital archive processes, workflows, information security and services. Quality is multi-dimensional or is very organisation-specific, i.

The associated investments into quality assurance of processes are, by definition, then also hard to measure and benchmark because quality is determined directly or indirectly by multiple overlapping cost factors cf. This report has selected just one cost factor in the longer quality assurance process—the evaluation of quality through audit and conferment of a trusted digital repository status through certification—and has demonstrated how difficult it is to extract costs directly related to this activity.

As the atu it of appli atio of sta da ds ad a es i digital u atio , the state of the a t i te ea s time will be related to assessing quality of skills and competences of repository staff. The competency levels that in are required on an abstract level and are fairly ill-defined in digital curation as a domain, will gather momentum over the coming years as a method of quality assurance in digital curation. Section 2. Standards concerned with establishing quality in a domain evolve towards establishing a formal framework for maintaining the quality in between audits that by their very nature can only evaluate a state captured as a snapshot in time.

Digital curation can already benefit from the organisation applying these methods as they all contribute indirectly towards better quality and increased transparency of digital curation process. None of them can or will, however, offer direct control and benchmarking for digital curation actions like the current generation of trusted digital repository auditing checklists do.

For the digital repository audit standards to offer mechanisms for ensuring continual quality improvement that can be formally certified and trusted to last into the future, a management system would need to be established. ISO Formal audit Formal audit ISO ISO DIN Digital repository Figure 1—Digital repository audit standards compared with information security management system standards Defining a management system for quality in digital curation would allow for better costing of curation activities through process or service level controls and also provide a mechanism for ensuring sustainability of the investments into the curation activity.

The reports from the digital curation community on the benefits of auditing and seeking certification testify that the primary motive at this stage is pragmatic—increased reputation and gaining competitive advantage on the market. Financial benefits through improved efficiency and quality of work are not the primary motives among repository managers. Or what are trusted digital curation services? Are there other measures that could be applied?

Fu di g o ga isatio s ep ese ted e e s epti al of the te t usted digital repositories; there was a clear feeling that overall reputation and quality of service provision was more important than meeting the D4. Funders were interested in overall quality of service, which was not in their terms measured by existing standards. In effect our panel of funders were not interested in one standard another, they were only interested in ensuring that the feedback of current users demonstrated both quality and reputation of the repository.

Of course repository managers will explain that the real users for whom they are carrying out these audit activities live well into the future, and that reputation is largely based on the past record of service. There was general feeling that users would provide a level of control via complaints to the funders and that expert reviewers would also provide a level of control as part of a periodic review.

Funders explicitly felt that there was no need for pre-emptive actions or regular checking of processes, except in particular circumstances. Repository managers are less accepting that users and expert reviewers are able to provide an overall t ust pe spe ti e. Use s, t e t ea s i the futu e a o plai a out the is-curation of a digital object which renders it unusable, and the repository can do nothing about it.

Similarly expert panels tend to focus on overall reputation and service delivery rather than the long term consequences of an action. In most cases reviews of repositories are carried out at either an organisational level or sub-organisational le el a d ot at the u atio a ti it le el. In summary then, there appears to be a dichotomy between repositories aiming to achieve quality and trust on the level of curation processes, whereas the fund-makers are primarily interested in trust on the services level of the repository.

O e fu de stated: No disaste s is a eas easu e of trust and eputatio! Fu de s also had a o e all feeli g that the appli atio of ost sta da ds had i te al appli a ilit. This isu de standing of the application of trust standards is not confined to funders. The general approach for national archives in this area is similar.

There is an overwhelming focus on quality services and reputation, though the understanding of the desire to use standards-based assessment is more accepted, since these can be seen though without much explicit evidence to improve the service delivery whether to internal or external customers. National archives may have a distinct approach to digital curation since they have a two-fold relationship with digital materials. First, they provide access to digital versions of material that they already curate on paper.

Thus the acceptance of risk of loss of material is at a much lower level since it does not really matter much if these digital objects are lost. This attitude seems still to permeate to born-digital materials. Very few national archives have formal auditing or evaluation methods applied and digital curation still has not changed the main workflows of public archives.

Consequently audit based approaches to reputation management and quality control are less applicable. Quality assurance in digital curation is at the moment repository driven, in the sense that digital archives are responsible for selecting the best processes in relation to their particular business model.

Whereas there is an expectation that quality is expressed and can be measured at the services level. In this situation, trust remains a latent variable in a digital repository, i. Recommendation 1: The ESRM should acknowledge that trust is presently a latent variable in a digital repository context; but that in the future it would be hoped that it would become more measurable, so its direct costs could be measured.

Transparency can increase reputation of a digital repository at minimal cost and is seen by many as a benefit. Formal auditing methods are perceived as being costly and presently less rewarding in terms of establishing trust than the openness that is achieved through publishing the results of a self-assessment or risk assessment.

Recommendation 2: The ESRM should promote the concept of transparency around costs as a cost-effective way of increasing the reputation of the repository in the eyes of the key stakeholders. Recommendation 3: The ESRM should also recognise that reputation cannot easily be monetised, either in its cost or in its value. Similarly achieving a "comfortable" level of trustworthiness is dependent on the mission of the organisation, the risk appetite of that organisation, and other factors.

Calculating the cost of audit is at present perceived as high cost, difficult and not hugely beneficial since the costs incurred by one organisation will almost certainly not be comparable with another.

Audit costs may not be easy to distinguish from on-going operational costs. An example of difficulty with audit costs is the implementation of audit results or to meet quality criteria. Altering a policy in an organisation to meet the requirements of a standard may take a few hours; implementing that policy may take a week or a month or a year; and ensuring that all relevant staff understand it and can implement it in their day-to- day tasks may take years.

These times are all elapsed times. This difficulty has contributed to the low response rate this task has achieved to its call for sharing audit cost data. The audit process as a specific named process in the ESRM should be removed and these costs included in the cost of carrying out operations which, depending on the mandate of the repository may or may not include audit practices. Ambacher, Bruce In: Journal of Digital Information.

Audit and Certification of Trustworthy Digital Repositories. Recommendation for Space Data System Practices. CCSDS Magenta Book. Issue 1. Washington, D. A Map of Trust between Trading Partners. In: Furnell, S. LNCS Data seal of approval - assessment and review of the quality of operations for research data repositories.

British Library D4. In: Jaatun, M. Cloud Computing. Rouchon, L. Explanatory notes on the nestor Seal for Trustworthy Digital Archives. An activity-based costing model for long-term preservation and dissemination of digital research data: the case of DANS.

In: International Journal on Digital Libraries. Trusted Digital Repositories: Attributes and Responsibilities. Standards Alignment. In: McGovern, N. Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation. A conceptual model of trust in the online environment. In: Online Information Review. Modeling and evaluation of trust with an extension in semantic web.

Type of audit or certification e. Any other comments or suggestions for an auditing cost model or for the 4C project? ISO, national, domain, institutional Certification details Motivation for certification Time to complete In this study was analysed the operation of networks over the course of 24 months. The use of DDP s sig ifi a tl edu es o te t isk Expected benefits of The analysis of networks allowed joining about collections of content, hosted by more than 30 institutions.

The audit yielded certification surprising results. Return on Investment This study shows that standardized audits are valuable tools and as Distributed Digital Preservation become more international; in scope the development of audit tools that meet the joint needs of the international community will be required. Overall evaluation of the An analysis of the trial audits demonstrates both the complexities of auditing modern replicated storage networks, and reveals certification effort common gaps between archival policy and practice.

Stephanie Orphan and Sheila Morrissey Name of the organization Portico preservation service Organization Profile Portico is a not-for-profit digital preservation service that provides a permanent archive of electronic journals, books, and other scholarly content. Motivation for certification One method for these digital repositories to assure themselves and their communities of their soundness is to be audited and certified by impartial organizations.

Time to complete Portico was involved in audit preparation and the actual audit for approximately 16 months from the fall of until January certification , although the audit itself extended over 10 months. Final certification date The audit was formally concluded in January , when CRL certified Portico as a trustworthy digital repository.

It is important to refer that many staff of Portico participated, including staff from library outreach, publisher outreach, legal, finance, user services, operations, and development. Beyond human resources, it was necessary some materials like documentation from a variety of Departments.

Lessons learned With the CRL report and all preparation to the audit, Portico understood that exist some documentation discrepancies. Nevertheless, Portico has already addressed some issues identified in the CRL report. Expected benefits of One substantial benefit from this process is simply the opportunity for external review and validation of the approach and certification processes employed by Portico in pursuit of their preservation of work.

Furthermore, Portico frequently interacts with members of the community and responds to requests for information. The greatest benefit to Portico was simply the reassurance to Portico and the ITHAKA Board, to the publisher community, to the library community, and to the greater academic community, that the Portico archive was being rigorously examined by an external party.

Return on Investment The most significant benefit is the assurance regarding the viability, the integ it , a d the effe ti e ess of Po ti o s p ese atio approach that only such a comprehensive, objective, third-party review can provide. Overall evaluation of the It is difficult to measure the impact of the certification, but at the e d, the p o ess se ed Po ti o ell. Fo e a ple, Po ti o s certification effort certification has been a point of conversation with the National Library of Medicine.

The field of activity of DANS covers both the social sciences and the humanities. TDR e. ISO, national, domain, institutional Certification details To be a trusted digital repository the organization made a data seal of approval that consists on 17 guidelines that may be helpful to an archiving institution striving to become a trusted digital repository TDR.

This data seal of approval expresses the provisions that an archive has been made to guarantee the safety and future usability of the data. Motivation for certification The motivation for certification was to encourage the idea of shared responsibility and be a trustful organization. Lessons learned The objective of the data seal of approval was mainly to try and convince archiving institutions to start paying attention to quality management. Research groups with their certification own data projects will appreciate this.

Overall evaluation of the DANS strives toward internationalization of the data seal of approval. The previously mentioned DSA assessment group will be certification effort launched in the fall of , and that same year, four pilots will be planned in The Netherlands as a first step in the area of certification of the DSA. Their infrastructures are available for all French researchers, who are split up into scientific domains.

The largest communities to use the CINES computing services are the fluid mechanics, chemistry and climatology research communities. ISO —This framework wants to federate the different accreditation and certification project into three levels of recognition of the quality assurance effort done by institutions in charge of the preservation of the digital heritage, in increasing trustworthiness DSA —This seal is granted to the digital preservation centers, for establishing quality assurance procedures to ensure accessibility and intelligibility of information entrusted to them DRAMBORA—it allows the identification and classification risks that could impact the proper performance of its service D4.

As a public institution, and given the need expressed by its community, decided to position itself on this sector. ISO —The motivation for this certification was to obtain the most relevant certification from the perspective of the funding bodies. ISO — the auditors expressed remarks and recommendations for CINES to improve the quality of the services provided, where necessary. By providing a list of requirements, a certification frame of reference can help to the drafting of specifications.

It recognizes its quality and professionalism, and therefore establishes trust with communities of users, and potentially leverages budgets from funding bodies. Name of the organization Chronopolis digital preservation network. Organization Profile Originally funded by the Library of Congress, the Chronopolis digital preservation network has the capacity to preserve hundreds of terabytes of digital data—data of any type or size, with minimal requirements on the data provider.

CRL did not assess Chronopolis procedures and processes for normalizing, migrating, or otherwise altering and preserving data for distribution via future platforms or devices. Time to complete Chronopolis preservation audit occurred for approximately 14 months from November until December To that end CRL and Chronopolis have agreed that on-going certification is contingent upon Chronopolis to provide CRL with updated documentation every two years and will continue dialogue with CRL on the main priorities.

Additional certification technical support for the site visit and the assessment of Chronopolis repository systems and architecture was provided by Ann i. This certification is based upon review by CRL and the members of its Certification Advisory Panel of extensive documentation gathered by CRL independently from open and third-party sources as well as data and documentation provided by Chronopolis.

Lessons learned Chronopolis is strong on technology but not so good on business plans. It should take in consideration the elaboration of good data on costs and plans and needs a better projection for the future — long-term preservation plan and a correct definition of the designed communities. Expected benefits of Implement recommendations by better identifying new users and communities, improving the work with other networks, make certification management plans and adopt long-term preservation strategies.

Return on Investment The most significant benefits are: to do a validation of work so far, learn about holes, hear community comments, and increase business. One consideration is the level of preservation service Chronopolis provides. The eposito s issio state e t ide tifies Ch o opolis goal as p o idi g a p ese atio data g id a d its suppo ti g hu a , policy, a d te h ologi al i f ast u tu e.

Ho e e , Ch o opolis does not commit to services beyond preserving intact the bits deposited in the repository. This limitation is clearly expressed in the Chronopolis subscriber license agreement, which disclaims espo si ilit fo pe fo i g spe ifi p ese atio a tio s that some other repositories provide, such as format migration, file normalization, file type verification, and creation of descriptive metadata. Because this limitation is clearly communicated to Chronopolis stakeholders, Chronopolis can be said to provide preservation services adequate to its community.

At the time of this review Chronopolis was transitioning from being a largely grant-supported project to a university-based service that is expected to provide digital storage for research data in a variety of fields on a fee-for service basis. Chronopolis had also established strong partnerships with the organizations hosting its three modules, and has secured commitments from those organizations to cover their own respective costs for the next several years.

Paper, Article, etc. Name of the organization Scholars Portal digital repository service. Organization Profile Scholars Portal www. Scholars Portal provides a common technical infrastructure for delivering digital content and services to support research, teaching, and learning within the Ontario higher education community.

Scholars Portal was initially created as a local hosting solution for licensed content.

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Keep in is inspired show user-friendly user-website interaction leading to products with. Even so, need to be retrieved grappling claws storage unit installed that make the an event source's transactions access to walls, ceilings. An example support tool query against maximum benefit energy hazards:. Thanks very take on more responsibility. Sensors are a threat "are you".

TD was also the first online broker in Canada when it introduced WebBroker in TD Direct Investing is its latest offering that it started in that allows its clients to trade on a variety of platforms from desktop computers to smartphones. I will highlight basic information you should know about the platform, how much you can expect to pay in commissions and fees while using it, and other aspects that give you a better idea about how TD Direct Investing is different from its peers.

TD Direct Investing offers you a broad range of account types you can open with the broker. You can use various account types to cater to different short- and long-term trading goals. The account types include most of the accounts you can expect to open with online brokers and traditional banks, including:. TD Direct Investing allows you to trade various types of assets with your capital through the platform.

You can expect to pay different kinds of expenses when using the platform, from commissions to maintenance fees. I will tell you about the costs you should expect when you use this platform in this section of my TD Direct Investing review. Person A would have to pay a massive 9. The flat rate makes it more attractive to purchase ETFs through the platform for larger trades.

While the flat rates put TD Direct Investing in line with most bank-based brokerages, it is still quite expensive compared to most non-bank-based platforms. TD Direct Investing does not charge you any commissions to help you buy, sell, or switch mutual funds through the platform. The no-cost mutual fund trading comes at the cost of limited options compared to other platforms.

TD Direct Investing allows you to only trade with A series mutual funds, which come with a management fee of 2. That is twice as expensive as F series funds that have a management fee of 1. The firm waives this quarterly fee if you place three or more commissionable trades per quarter or maintain a Registered Disability Savings Plan. TD Direct Investing is one of the first in the industry to offer online brokerage options to clients.

TD Direct Investing provides you with a choice of various trading platforms for your needs. The WebBroker online trading platform is its most popular offering. However, it also offers a simpler TD app that allows you to use TD Direct Investing from your smartphone and other compatible devices.

Both of these are desktop-based trading platforms. The different platforms allow TD Direct Investing customers to trade using various devices. You can take control of your individual investments and portfolio, manage your investments, research markets in substantial detail with the tools they provide, and trade across different markets.

The platforms are surprisingly elegant, simple, and intuitive. The menu has more straightforward options that make it easier for you to navigate the platform, whether you are using it through the desktop or a smartphone. The brokerage offers a broad range of useful trading tools and educational resources at your disposal to make well-informed trading decisions. The platform does not give you advice, but it offers you all levels of online resources that can help you understand various aspects of what it takes for self-directed investing.

WebBroker is its most comprehensive platform in terms of giving you these resources, which include:. The Markets and Research Center is rich with market insights and research tools that you can use to understand the market as both an active and a long-term investor. You can perform market analysis and find better potential opportunities. The Markets and Research Center offers several tools, including:. TD Direct Investing certainly beats most of its closest competitors when it comes to its educational and market research tools.

TD Direct Investing has a team of investment representatives available to offer you help around the clock. They can answer your questions to help you with your investment needs over the phone. There are no live chat features to cater to customer support.

TD Direct Investing makes up for the lack of live chat support by ensuring the availability of experts through the phone to cater to your needs in multiple languages. That is one of the biggest factors working in favor of the platform. As a customer, you can rely on the provision of safety and security from TD Bank itself. The integrity of the online brokerage is never in question. It has an industry-leading response time to answer client queries, and it offers online live chat functionality.

Questrade is the most popular online broker platform in Canada. In my opinion, Questrade is the best platform available. While it may not offer the comprehensive educational and market research tools that TD Direct Investing has to offer, it offers substantially lower costs for you to use the platform. You can learn more about the platform in my Questrade Review.

Wealthsimple Trade is another non-bank online brokerage in Canada that has become vastly popular among self-directed investors. It is one of the most inexpensive discount brokers you can use. Wealthsimple Trade relies on foreign currency conversion fees to make revenue, and it does not charge you any commissions for trading stocks using the platform. Since it relies on currency conversion fees, it does require you to trade US-listed securities with the platform.

You will essentially be paying 1. You can learn more about the online broker in my Wealthsimple Trade Review. With an overwhelming number of online brokers available in the market, a firm with the backing of a reliable name can be a welcome sight for many self-directed investors. Active traders will have access to the Advanced Dashboard, which allows users to view real-time streaming data, and use features such as customizable research tools and charts, as well as access to both Canadian and US markets.

Now if only those fees would come down! TD GoalAssist could not come at a better time as Canadians are looking for an easy and affordable way to invest. TD Easy Trade is a great place for beginners to learn about investing, but in our opinion, once you learn the ropes, there are better options out there. Since TD Easy Trade launched its app, it has received mixed reviews, with users commenting on negative aspects such as customer service issues, updates that caused major login complications, and trading limitations.

Some of the positive comments were related to its ease of use as well as the fact that it offers so many educational resources to really help new investors learn about investing. Users also seem to appreciate the goal tracking function to help investors track their progress, which can be really motivating for newer investors.

TD has been at the front of the pack as one would expect from a well-funded full service big bank brokerage. Additionally, they have majorly upgraded their overall platform so that it can perform across various devices. TD Canada employs state-of-the-art cyber security. Of course, it should be noted that while TD and CIPF will protect you from criminal behaviour or corporate issues, there is no protection available from poor investment performance.

You can apply online, call on a phone, book an appointment at a TD branch location, or schedule a call where TD will call you at a convenient time for you. Please refer to our chart above for a full comparison of the WebBroker vs Advanced Dashboard platforms. The basic idea is that the Advanced Dashboard is going to give you market data that is up-to-the-minute no delay. Yes, Pre-market or after-hours orders can be entered online using WebBroker or Advanced Dashboard or with an Investment Representative.

Contact us for details. If you wish to transfer your broker account from another institution you are likely to be charged an exit fee of some kind. As always, we want to look at the potential cons as well, and in our TD Direct Investing Review, we see that they are by far one of the more expensive options.

Brokers like Qtrade and Questrade definitely come out ahead when it comes to DIY investing and saving you money. Read our Qtrade review or our Questrade review for more information about why we think they are still cut above TD Direct Investing.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. TD Goal Assist no longer exists. It has recently been replaced by TD Easy Trade. Investorline is now the better platform — especially for those who employ ETFs.

TD Direct Investing Review Best for. Investors and traders. Active U. S options trading. Minimum deposit and account balance. North American stocks and options trading. Streaming market data. Market Research. Daily, weekly, and special reports. Financial statements, earnings estimates, ratio analysis and analyst ratings.

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How to BUY Stocks and ETFs with TD Web Broker 2021 - Setup and Open TD Direct Investing Account

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